As opposed to their analysis of chapter 16, Radak and Ramban remain silent about the parallel narrative in chapter 21, when Abraham and Sarah banished Hagar and Ishmael
In treating such characters as Melchizedek, Hagar and Ishmael
, Jethro, Rachav, Ruth, Cyrus, and others, Salkin seeks to uphold these ancient figures as role models for contemporary Jewish-gentile relationships, reminding his fellow Jews of the tremendous debt they owe to the gentile world.
Islam's celebrations of Hagar and Ishmael
finding Mecca and their discovery of water are described in equal detail.
also shows how Martin Luther, by contrast, was very approving of Hagar and provided "the most sympathetic, heartfelt account of the story of Hagar and Ishmael
in the early modern period" (16).
She worries that Abraham might send them away, for with this new heir Hagar and Ishmael
are no longer "needed" in the same way.
Abraham's banishment of Hagar and Ishmael
is also read on Rosh Hashanah and is brought to life in a black and white detailed etching featured in the exhibit.
154-55), the biblical account is referenced, but then expanded to include the Muslim sources that tie Hagar and Ishmael
to the well of Zamzam in Mecca as well as the tradition that Ishmael was the son of Abraham ordered to be sacrificed (Q 37:102-6).
Despite Sarah's forcing Hagar and Ishmael
to be exiled, it is clear that Isaac continued to have some connections with Ishmael.
The sense of destiny introduced to explain the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael
operates on two levels: first, at a typological level it strengthens the association between Isaac and Christ, and secondly, at the human level, this wyrd refers to the inevitable disinheritance of an illegitimate son (lines 2778-2791a):
Hagar and Ishmael
are now freed slaves who wander the desert and almost die until God miraculously brings water and reiterates his promise.
Some time after Isaac's weaning, "laughter" gave rise to family dislocation, the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael
While the story of the exile of Hagar and Ishmael
has inspired enmity and violence, it is open to new interpretation and "pro-social development": The Genesis record that, when Ishmael was "gathered unto his people" at his death, can be read to mean that he was reunited with his estranged family.