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(hī`də), Native North Americans living primarily on the Queen Charlotte Islands, off British Columbia, and on the southern end of the Prince of Wales Island, off Alaska. They speak the Haida language, which forms a branch of the family of Nadene languages (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In physical and cultural characteristics they are closely related to the Tlingit and the Tsimshian; the three tribes belong to the Northwest Coast cultural area (see under Natives, North AmericanNatives, North American,
peoples who occupied North America before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th cent. They have long been known as Indians because of the belief prevalent at the time of Columbus that the Americas were the outer reaches of the Indies (i.e.
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). Before the advent (early 19th cent.) of white fur traders, the Haida lived in large cedar-plank houses, fished for salmon, and hunted sea mammals; they were noted for their large and well-made dugout canoes. Their society was divided into the Raven and Eagle clans; marriage was always with someone of the opposite clan, and clan membership derived matrilineally. Their customs featured the conspicuous display of wealth (see potlatchpotlatch
, ceremonial feast of the natives of the NW coast of North America, entailing the public distribution of property. The host and his relatives lavishly distributed gifts to invited guests, who were expected to accept any gifts offered with the understanding that at a
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). They then numbered some 8,000, but by 1880 disease, particularly smallpox and venereal infections, had reduced their population to some 2,000. Today most Haida are employed in fishing, canning, and logging; many have left their island homes for mainland life. The artwork of the Haida is widely acclaimed. In 1990 there were close to 2,000 Haida living in the United States and another 2,000 in Canada.


See C. Harrison, Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific (1925); P. Miller, Lost Heritage of Alaska (1967).

References in periodicals archive ?
We observed increases in birth weight associated with the 8th month of pregnancy occurring during the 2008 Olympics period, compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009, among pregnant women living in Xicheng (20 g; 95% CI: -46 g, 86 g), Haidan (41 g; 95% CI: 10 g, 71 g), and Chaoyang (32 g; 95% CI: 4 g, 59 g) districts, but not in Fengtai (-18 g; 95% CI: -57 g, 19 g).
Al Haidan, who led the UAE delegation, affirmed that the UAE's policy, based on balance, moderation, respect of the sovereignty of other states and non-interference in their internal affairs, has led to the creation of a positive climate for the promotion of development, civil society's efforts and active participation in all activities.
New arrivals reaching the camp in Hajjah governorate have told the UNHCR the fighting in Saada had spread to southern districts as more and more displaced are fleeing from these parts, particularly from Haidan district.
Tariq Ahmed Al Haidan said the move comes within the framework of bilateral relations between UAE and Tunisia.
Collins, Guojin Gong & Haidan Li, The Effect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on the Timing Manipulation of CEO Stock Option Awards (Working Paper, Nov.
1 rang tournament organisers in Beijing on Friday night explaining why he was withdrawing from the pounds 200,000 world-ranking event which starts at the Haidan Stadium in Beijing today.
The world champion and world number one rang tournament organisers in Beijing on Friday night explaining why he was withdrawing from the pounds 200,000 world-ranking event which starts at the Haidan Stadium in Beijing tomorrow.
HAIDAN O'BRIEN'S unbeaten Ace, ridden by stable jockey Jamie Spencer, looks the stable's best chance.
More than any other writer I can think of, Danticat has advanced the feminist movement, at least from a Haidan perspective, not only by writing a novel that focuses on the transmission of traditional stories in a contemporary setting but by actually having them published by Random House in New York and thus made available globally, especially as Breath, Eyes, Memory has been translated into French and soon will be into Creole.
Asked who his influences are, he cites the 20th-century oud innovator, Ash-Sharif Mohaideen Haidan, his Mosul-born teacher, Munir Bashir, and exponents like Salman Shukr, Jamil Bashir and Ghanem Haddad.
Sakurai Takejiro, "Basho to Genroku haidan," in Basho hikkei, Bessatsu Kokubungaku 8, ed.