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a megye (county) in Hungary, in the basin of the Tisza River, mainly within the Alföld. Area, 5,800 sq km. Population, 358,000 (1975). The capital is the city of Debrecen.
Hajdú-Bihar’s economy is primarily agricultural and industrial. In 1970, 36.3 percent of the economically active population was engaged in agriculture, and 33.9 percent in industry. Approximately 60 percent of the land is cultivated, and approximately 25 percent is devoted to pastures or meadows. The main crops include wheat, Indian corn, rye, potatoes, sunflowers, and sugar beets. In yield of these crops, Hajdú-Bihar holds second place among the megyék of Hungary.
By supplying water to the arid and saline lands of the west, in Hortobágy and elsewhere, the Tiszalök Reservoir on the Tisza River and a system of canals have made possible the cultivation of rice. Swine, cattle, and sheep are raised in Hajdú-Bihar.
Natural gas is extracted at Hajdúszoboszló. The megye produces flour, canned fruit, bearings, agricultural machinery, medical instruments, clothing, and such pharmaceuticals as penicillin. Hajdú-Bihar also manufactures meat and tobacco products.