Haloxylon


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Haloxylon

 

(saxaul), a genus of plants of the family Chenopodiaceae. The plants are shrubs or small trees measuring 1.5–12 m tall. The fragile young shoots are forked branching and segmented. The dense or open crown is green in the summer and dirty gray or brownish in the autumn. The opposite leaves are in the form of small colorless scales or tubercles that are slightly compressed to the stem. The flowers are bisexual and borne singly by short twigs in the axils of the scalelike bracts. The perianth consists of five tunicate leaflets that form broad wings, which lie one behind the other near the fruit. Saxauls regenerate readily by suckers and reproduce by seed. The plants live as long as 30 to 60 years.

There are ten species, distributed in semidesert and desert areas of Asia (Middle Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, northwestern China, Mongolia). The plants sometimes form forests. The USSR has three species: H. aphyllum, H. ammodendron, and H. persicum. The first two grow on salinated sands and loams. The leaves of H. ammodendron resemble tubercles. H. persicum, which grows on hilly and flat sandy areas, has needle-like leaves.

Saxaul wood is hard, brittle, and heavy. Used for fuel, it produces slightly less heat than lignite. Potash is obtained from the ashes. In the winter the green branchlets serve as fodder for camels and sheep. Forests of H. aphyllum are most productive. Saxaul is used to bind sand and to beautify cities.

REFERENCES

Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Leont’ev, V. L. Saksaulovye lesa pustyni Kara-Kum. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954.

T. G. LEONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Studying the possibility of determining the density of Haloxylon mass by using satellite images, first conference of Haloxylon-46, Iran.
These people can be easily infected during their visit since abundant haloxylon trees provide a great habitat for mice colonies.
Ecological study of the specie Haloxylon, Willow and Tamarix in deserts of Iran.
raddiana) and scattered shrubs (Zilla spinosa, Lycium shawii, and Haloxylon persicum) that occur only in the dry river beds (wadis).
This community type is found along the wade distributed apart from the other communities with the dominance of Haloxylon salicornicum with Salsola imbricate.
All of them are xerophytic species and those which can grow in disturbed habitats like Salsola imbricate, Rhazya stricta, Haloxylon salicornicum, Calotropis procera, Alhagi sp.
droserifolia 2 Zilla spinosa 3 Citrullus colocynthis 4 Fagonia cretica 5 Zizphus spina- christi 6 Aerva javanica 7 Bassia eriophora 8 Cornulaca monacantha 9 Haloxylon salicornicum 10 Salsola imbricata 11 Acacia ehrenbergiana 12 Acacia gerrardii 13 Acacia tortolis 14 Logonychium farctum 15 Alhagi mannifera 16 Alhagi maurorum 17 Rhynchosia minima 18 Crotalaria aculeate 19 Tephrosia uniflora 20 Rhazia stricta 21 Calotropis procera 22 Hyoscymus muticus 23 Lycium barbarum 24 Convolvulus lanatus 25 Heliotropium bacciferum 26 Heliotropium digynum 27 Heliotropium europium 28 Echinops husoni 29 Phaeopappus scoparius 30 Rhanterium epapposum 31 Panicum Monocots turgidum 32 Pennisetum divisum 33 Cyperus conglomeratus No.
negevensis, Salsola vermiculata, Bassia (Chenolea) arabica, and Atriplex glauca on chalk- and marl-derived soils; Anabasis syriaca and Haloxylon scoparium are the shrubby dominants on loess-derived soils.
Chalk and marl outcrops are populated with the halophyte communities of Suaeda asphaltica, Salsola tetrandra, and Haloxylon negevensis.
The relatively high water table in the valley enables the tall shrub Haloxylon persicum to develop successfully where sand is sufficiently deep.
Huge areas of sand sheets are dominated there by Haloxylon salicornicum, Anabasis articulata, and occasional patches of Haloxylon persicum where the sand is slightly mobile and deeper than in the areas dominated by the two other species.