Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani,1952–, emir of Qatar (1995–2013). The son of Emir Khalifa bin Hamad al-ThaniKhalifa bin Hamad al-Thani,
1932–2016, emir of Qatar (1972–95). Khalifa was the son of Hamad bin Abdullah al-Thani, the second emir's heir apparent, but Hamad died (1948) before the emir.
..... Click the link for more information. , Hamad is credited with having turned a country of desert nomads into a modern, industrialized nation. He graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, England (1971), then joined Qatar's armed forces, rising to become commander in chief. He assumed a role in planning Qatar's economic and social policies in the 1980s, and was running the country's day-to-day affairs, including development of its oil and gas resources, by the 1990s. In 1995, while his father was abroad, Hamad deposed him in a bloodless coup. As emir, Hamad established the country's sovereign wealth fund, which has invested Qatar energy revenues in major businesses worldwide. He also helped underwrite the Al Jazeera news network, which is based in Qatar. He abdicated in favor of his son Tamim bin Hamad al-ThaniTamim bin Hamad al-Thani,
1980–, emir of Qatar (2013–). The fourth son of Emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, he became heir apparent when his older brother Jasmin renounced his claim to the throne in 2003.
..... Click the link for more information. in 2013, but remained a powerful figure behind the scenes.