Hay cinco familias Apodanthaceae, Alzateaceae, Hamamelidaceae
, Mitrastemonaceae y Phyllonomaceae, que representan el 2.
Iridoids are very rare in Rosiflorae: Buxaceae having only one representative, buxeletin; Daphniphyllaceae, with three representatives, such as: asperuloside, daphylloside and geniposidic acid; and Hamamelidaceae with two representatives from the genus Liquidambar, asperuloside and monotropein.
In Hamamelidales, the family Hamamelidaceae biosynthesises anthocyanidins, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols all have a high proportion of unprotected hydroxyls and when they are protected, the mechanism is through glycosylation.
parsimonious tree, and Myrothamnus groups with Hamamelidaceae
The sources for characters 38 through 47 are as follows: Gunnera (Praglowski, 1970; Jarzen, 1980; Jarzen & Dettmann, 1989), Proserpinaca (Praglowski, 1970); Ascarina (Walker & Walker, 1984), Aucuba (Chao, 1954), Griselinia (Heusser, 1971) Cercidiphyllum, Trochodendrales, Hamamelidaceae (Zavada & Dilcher, 1986; Hufford & Crane, 1989; Endress, 1993a, 1993b, 1993c); Platanus (Kubitzki, 1993a); Lopezia (Patel et al.
Table 1 Affinities of Gannera proposed or implied by various authors Proposed Source(s) affinity Haloragaceae/ Bentham & Hooker, 1865; de Candolle, 1868; Haloragales Engler & Prand (Peterson, 1893); Schindler, 1905; Hutchinson, 1973; Cronquist, 1981; Heywood, 1993 Urticales Jussieu, 1789; Battling, 1830; Endlicher, 1837 Arialaceae Lindley, 1846 Umbellales Gibbs, 1974 Onagraceae Gray, 1854; Gibbs, 1974; Doyle & Scogin, 1988a, 1988b Vitaceae Behnke, 1981; Thorne, 1992 Cornaceae Thorne, 1992 Connaraceae Behnke,1986 Eucryphiaceae Behnke,1986 Balanophoraceae Hooker, 1856; Hansen, 1980; Mabberley, 1993 Saxifragaceae Huber, 1963; Takhtajan, 1980, 1983; Dahlgren, 1983; Doyle & Scogin, 1988a, 1988b Hamamelidaceae Chase et al.
1) a family description of the Hamamelidaceae
and (2) the ways in which
The combination of such a unique feature and the exclusive occurrence of these genera in the Southern Hemisphere (Australia, Madagascar, and Africa), in contrast to all other Hamamelidaceae, indicate that they represent a monophyletic group, which was separated from the northern rest of the family sometime in the Cretaceous and deserve to be recognized as a taxon (Endress, 1989b).
6A, B) (Endress, 1969), which is also known in some Hamamelidaceae and related families.
For Mione and Bogle (1990: 78), studying Hamamelidaceae, staminodes are "sterile floral appendages which are most certainly derived from stamens, i.
In the Hamamelidaceae it is difficult to distinguish among sterile phyllomes or appendages, staminodes, and nectaries.
Lauraceae), "winteroids" (Winteraceae, Illiciaceae), and eudicots (Eupteleaceae, Platanaceae, Hamamelidaceae
, Tetracentraceae) are known (Page, 1981; Wheeler & Baas, 1991), but the precise relationships of many of these fossils and their evolutionary implications remain unknown.