Hamangia

Hamangia

 

a Neolithic archaeological culture (fifth and first half of the fourth millennia B.C.) widespread in what is now Dobruja in Rumania and in the vicinity of the city of Burgas in Bulgaria. It is named after the remains of a settlement near the village of Hamangia (modern Baia).

The bearers of the Hamangia culture built their settlements of subterranean, semisubterranean, and lightweight ground-level dwellings near rivers or lakes. They engaged in hunting, fishing, weaving, primitive land cultivation, and stock raising. The burials yielded vessels (polished goblets and cups), stone tools, ornaments of bone and shell, and clay figurines, including the masterpieces of prehistoric art “The Thinker” and “The Thinking Woman.” The Hamangia culture belongs to the group of Balkan-Mediterranean cultures; some of its more unique features later appear in the Gumel-niţa culture.

REFERENCES

Fedorov, G. B.. and L. L. Polevoi. Arkheologiia Rumynii. Moscow, 1973.
Berciu, D. Cultura Hamangia, vol. 1. Bucharest, 1966.
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They show what can be determined about whole objects given the issue of fragmentation, then describe evidence in Hamangia figurines, failures in re-fitting studies and biographical approaches to artifacts.
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