Hampden, John

Hampden, John

(hămp`dən, hăm`–), 1594–1643, English parliamentary leader; cousin of Oliver Cromwell. He entered Parliament in 1621, became closely associated with Sir John EliotEliot, Sir John,
1592–1632, English parliamentary leader. He was a staunch defender of parliamentary liberties. Eliot instituted (1626) the impeachment proceedings against Charles I's favorite, the 1st duke of Buckingham, and joined Sir Edward Coke and others in promoting
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, and was imprisoned (1627) for refusing to pay the forced loan demanded by Charles ICharles I,
1600–1649, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625–49), second son of James I and Anne of Denmark. Early Life

He became heir to the throne on the death of his older brother Henry in 1612 and was made prince of Wales in 1616.
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. With Viscount Saye and SeleSaye and Sele, William Fiennes, 1st Viscount
, 1582–1662, English politician and promoter of colonization in America.
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, John PymPym, John
, 1583?–1643, English statesman. A Puritan opposed equally to Roman Catholicism and to Arminianism in the Anglican church, Pym early became prominent in the parliamentary opposition to Charles I.
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, and other parliamentary leaders, he involved himself in various colonization schemes. In 1637, Hampden challenged the king's right to raise revenue by the device of ship money, a tax originally levied on ports for defense purposes but extended by Charles to inland counties. He was convicted (1638) by a very narrow margin for his refusal to pay the tax, and the case inflamed popular resentment against the king. Conspicuous as a leader of both the Short and Long Parliaments, Hampden was one of the five members whose attempted arrest by Charles (1642) helped to precipitate the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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. He raised a regiment for the parliamentarians and was mortally wounded at Chalgrove Field, fighting Prince Rupert.

Hampden, John

 

Born 1594, in London; died June 24, 1643, at Chalgrove Field, in Oxfordshire. Important figure in the English Revolution of the 17th century.

In 1621, Hampden was elected to Parliament and became one of the leaders of the parliamentary opposition. In 1637 he was convicted of refusing to pay Ship Money, a tax introduced by Charles I. The Hampden case helped intensify the struggle against absolutism. In 1640 the Long Parliament set aside the decision of the court. Hampden was included in the list of five Long Parliament leaders whom Charles I ordered arrested in January 1642 on the charge of high treason, but popular protest thwarted implementation of the order. At the outbreak of the Civil War Hampden joined the Independents and participated in organizing the parliamentary army. On June 18, 1643, he was fatally wounded in battle.

IU. M. SAPRYKIN

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