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(hang`jō`) or


(hăng`chou), city (1994 est. pop. 1,184,300), capital of Zhejiang prov., E China. It is on the Fuchun River at the head of Hangzhou Bay and handles river traffic through its port. It is also a rail hub with important links to Shanghai. Long a famous silk-producing center, Hangzhou has recently been developed into a major industrial complex. Manufactures include silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel products, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, cement, rubber, paper and bamboo products, chemicals, machine tools, electronic equipment, and processed tea. Hangzhou's charming natural setting on the shore of scenic Xihu (West Lake) amid high, wooded hills attracts many tourists. Many Chinese officials have vacation homes on the lake.

Hangzhou was founded A.D. 606 and was from 907 to 960 the capital of a powerful kingdom. Many of the city's picturesque monasteries and shrines date from this period. It was the capital of the Southern Sung dynasty from 1132 to 1276, when it was sacked by Kublai Khan. In the Southern Sung period Hangzhou, rich with a thriving silk trade, was a center of art, literature, and scholarship and a cosmopolitan city with a large colony of foreign merchants—Arabs, Persians, and Nestorian Christians. Marco PoloPolo, Marco
, 1254?–1324?, Venetian traveler in China. His father, Niccolò Polo, and his uncle, Maffeo Polo, had made (1253–60) a trading expedition to Constantinople.
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, who visited it then, described it as the finest and noblest city in the world. It was famous for its splendid buildings before its near destruction (1861) during the Taiping RebellionTaiping Rebellion,
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed and messianic religious ideology influenced by elements of Protestant Christianity.
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; it was subsequently rebuilt along mainly modern lines.

The city's modern prosperity dates from the opening of the Shanghai-Hangzhou-Ningbo RR in 1909. It was occupied by the Japanese from 1937 to 1945, and it fell to the Communists in 1949. Hangzhou is the seat of Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou Univ., an agricultural institute, a medical college, and an institute of fine arts. Also in the city are Lingyin Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple founded in A.D. 326; botanical gardens; an art museum; and an astronomical observatory.

Hangzhou Bay is an arm of the East China Sea and begins at the mouth of the Fuchun River. When the tide is coming in, the funnel shape of the bay creates a spectacular bore, which can reach 25 ft (8 m) in height amd sweeps past Hangzhou, menacing shipping. The 22.4 mi (36 km) Hangzhou Bay Bridge crosses the bay between Zhapu (N) and Cixi (S). Zhoushan Archipelago lies across the southern entrance of the bay.


, Hangchow
a port in E China, capital of Zhejiang province, on Hangzhou Bay (an inlet of the East China Sea), at the foot of the Eye of Heaven Mountains: regarded by Marco Polo as the finest city in the world; seat of two universities (1927, 1959). Pop.: 1 955 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
In tandem with China National Tourism Administration's theme "Beautiful China 2015 -- Year of Silk Road Tourism," HTC's Global Tour 2015 will support the winners to trace the ancient Silk Road beginning in Hangzhou and traveling through Dunhuang, China; Mykonos, Greece; Santorini, Greece; Dubrovnik, Croatia; Venice, Italy; Geneva, Switzerland; Paris, France; Boston, Massachusetts (Hangzhou's U.
Qatar Airways planned non-stop service on the Doha Hangzhou route will offer 24 seats in Business Class and 236 seats in Economy Class.
Software for the Children of Hangzhou: Connecting with China exhibition was developed by the State Street Technology Center in Hangzhou, China, a joint project with Zhejiang University, one of China's leading universities.
One of the world's most important temples, the Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou, features over 400 limestone carvings.
11, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang province in eastern China, will host the 14th West Lake International Expo in October, when series of exhibitions, forums and leisure activities are expected to attract 10 million visitors and create business communications for around 50,000 businessmen.
16, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- The 14th West Lake International Expo Hangzhou, China officially opened on October 13.
HANGZHOU, China, March 11, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- The ceremony launching the worldwide search for the modern "Marco Polo" was held with grandeur in Hangzhou on March 11.
the premier developer of adaptive data protection solutions, and Hangzhou Huawei-3Com Technology Co.
Meanwhile, Hafele, Hettich, Blum, Shandong Lang Fabo, Jiaxing Li Hai, Thailand Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Young Enterprise and other well-known industry enterprises have signed up for The First Leading Brand Collection , and will bring along excellent high-end product technologies to promote the development of the furniture industry.
As the world's originating source for silk and a rich heritage dating back more than 5,000 years, Chinese silk from Hangzhou is renown as being the finest available anywhere," said Mr.
The inauguration was organized by Hangzhou Tourism Commission, & Hangzhou Grand Canal Protection Committee, hosted by Hangzhou Municipal Government, Zhejiang Tourism Bureau, and held under the guidance of the National Tourism Administration.
Foodies can learn more about Hangzhou's famous dishes, including Tea Dishes, classic Hangzhou Cuisine and Mama's Household Cuisine, on Facebook, Pinterest and other social media platforms and participate in an online food jigsaw puzzle for a free air ticket to Hangzhou.