hantavirus

(redirected from Hantavirus infections)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.

hantavirus,

any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA virusesvirus,
parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Most viruses are too small (100–2,000 Angstrom units) to be seen with the light microscope and thus must be studied by electron microscopes.
..... Click the link for more information.
 that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus. The first to be isolated (1976) was the Hantaan virus (from the Han River in South Korea, which also gives the species its name). Hantaan virus and its related strains, Seoul virus and Puulmala virus, cause Korean hemorrhagic fever (more correctly, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), a condition in which the capillaries of the circulatory system begin to leak blood. Although some people with the disease are nearly asymptomatic, in others it can lead to shock, acute kidney failure, and, in 10% of cases, death.

A second disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was identified in the United States in 1993 and is caused by at least three strains of the virus. It is known to be carried by deer mice, white-footed mice, and cotton rats. This disease is much more deadly, causing flulike symptoms that can lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs and death. One of the pulmonary strains, the Sin Nombre virus (named for a Spanish massacre of Native Americans that occurred in the canyon where it was discovered), was the cause of a 1993 outbreak in the Four Corners area of the SW United States that killed 32 of 53 people known to have been infected. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurs sporadically in North America, with roughly one third of those known to be infected dying from the disease. Outbreaks of a hantavirus strain that apparently can be spread from person to person occurred in South America in 1996 and 1997. There is no vaccination for pulmonary hantavirus. Treatment includes respiratory and hemodynamic support; the antiviral drug ribavirin has been effective in some cases.

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
Although Dobrava-Belgrade virus and Tula virus circulate in rodent hosts in Germany and might cause an infection in humans (38-40), almost all hantavirus infections (especially in southern Germany) are caused by PUUV (5,7).
Serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on detection of im munoglobulin G and M responses to recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of five viral serotypes.
No known diseases are associated with hantavirus infections in rodents, a fact that underlies the amicable relationship between virus and host developed by mutual interaction over hundreds of thousands of years.
Hantavirus infections in the Netherlands are most likely caused by PUUV, although SEOV- or TULV-associated infections cannot be excluded; clinical SEOV infections have been reported from France and the United Kingdom (8,9).
Hantavirus infection in Brazil: development and evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting based on N recombinant protein.
The 2012 outbreak of hantavirus infections among Yosemite visitors was the largest recognized outbreak of SNV infections in the United States since the Four Corners outbreak in 1993.
In the United States, [approximately equal to] 90% of hantavirus infections are acquired through household or occupational exposures (11), although a 2012 outbreak among Yosemite National Park visitors is a noteworthy example of recreational hantavirus exposure (12).
The first notification that aroused suspicion of hantavirus infection occurred on January 12, 2010, in patients from the Sobradinho Indian settlement.
How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores.
However, arenavirus and hantavirus infections are likely severely underreported because symptoms may resemble those of many other febrile infections (2).
Whether this load distribution is unique for fatal PUUV infections remains to be seen because corresponding data for other hantavirus infections are missing.
Although 3 hantaviruses, Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava-Belgrade virus, and Tula virus circulate in rodent hosts in Germany and can infect humans (6-8), most hantavirus infections in humans are caused by PUUV.