hapten

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Related to Haptens: Epitopes

hapten

(immunology)
An incomplete antigen that cannot induce antibody formation by itself but can do so by coupling with a larger carrier molecule.
References in periodicals archive ?
DA is a characteristic hapten with a low molar mass of 311 g/mol, and it cannot induce immune response in animal.
Separately focusing on the impact of HaCaT keratinocytes on the modulation of EC[DELTA]10 and EC[DELTA]50 values for haptens or prohaptens revealed that the chemicals for which potency was decreased were mainly haptens, while the majority of the chemicals for which potency was increased are prohaptens (acetaminophen, 3-aminophenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, resorcinol, cinnamic alcohol) (Fig.
The vaccine "cocktail," as Janda calls it, has three components: a large protein that carries the druglike molecules into the body; a molecule called a hapten, chemically designed to induce an immune response to heroin and its metabolites 6-AM and morphine; and finally, alum, an agent commonly added to vaccines to stimulate release of cytokines, proteins that help rally the immune cells to fight invaders.
LCs have long been assumed to be the DCs responsible for inducing Th1/Tc1 cells in CHS, because of their abundance in the skin, the easy accessibility to haptens, and the strong antigen-presentation ability in vitro.
Until now, haptens have been measurable only by use of competitive immunoassays because their limited molecular sizes impede simultaneous binding of 2 antibodies to 1 hapten molecule.
By normalizing the barrier, the cytokine cascade is decreased and the entry of allergens and haptens into the skin is reduced.
These metabolites act as haptens and render the keratinocytes antigenic by binding to them.
This tremendously increases the surface availability for biological interactions leading to the formation of new allergens, irritants and haptens etc.
22) Drugs are haptens, which should be combined with proteins to form a complete antigen.
This phenomenon is clinically well known as anergy to tuberculin or other immunogenic haptens after subcutaneous injections.
8) LMW allergens acting as haptens form complexes with proteins that are recognised by the immune system, leading to the ensuing allergic response.