Harappa


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Harappa:

see Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization,
ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan.
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Harappa

 

the ruins of one of the chief centers of the Harappan civilization, located near an old bed of the Ravi River, near Multan, Pakistan. The ruins were discovered by R. Sahni in 1921 and subsequently investigated by M. S. Vats, M. Wheeler, and G. F. Dales. The settlement occupied an area of more than 260 hectares and consisted of a citadel and the lower city. The lower city, laid out according to a well-defined plan, was divided into various quarters and separate production complexes, the latter including granaries, round grain-pounding platforms, and a foundry. Other objects of material culture found at Harappa are characteristic of all the settlements of the Harappan civilization.

REFERENCE

Vats, M. S. Excavations at Harappa, vols. 1–2. Delhi, 1940.

Harappa

an ancient city in the Punjab in NW Pakistan: one of the centres of the Indus civilization that flourished from 2500 to 1700 bc; probably destroyed by Indo-European invaders
References in periodicals archive ?
She said that Moenjodaro and Harappa were surely the classic and the most famous examples of remarkable planned cities discovered in the Indus Valley.
Considering its scope and significance, our Inheriting Harappa project has prestigiously been chosen as a recipient of the UNESCO International Fund for Promotion of Culture (IFPC) Award 2015 and will also have an exhibition presence in Islamabad and Karachi.
The data suggest instead that some communities at Harappa faced more significant impacts than others from climate and socio-economic strains, particularly the socially disadvantaged or marginalized communities who are most vulnerable to violence and disease.
Tripathi locates Meluha in the area of the Mohenjorado and Harappa civilisation and draws heavily from the historical finds in the area, to define the near-perfect life of the citizens of his fictional land.
Its history [is] traced back to the oldest civilization of Taxila, Harappa and Indus valley, the Valley of Indus played the role of centre figure in constituting the History of Pakistan.
The earliest known agro-pastoralist sites on the plains of the Punjab, such as Jalilpur (Mughal 1972), the earliest occupation at Harappa (Ravi-Phase; Kenoyer & Meadow 2000; Meadow & Kenoyer 2005, 2008) and the Hakra-ware sites (Mughal 1997) are located on alluvial plains (Figure 7).
Best known for his graphic novels Corridor (2004), The Barn Owl's Wondrous Capers (2007), and The Harappa Files (2011), Berlin-based Indian artist Sarnath Banerjee expanded the presentation of his cultural and historical research with "History is Written by Garment Exporters," a collection of artworks consisting of drawings, prints, films, collages, sketchbooks, and appropriated items such as books and sneakers.
The cities of Mahenjo-daro and Harappa were the first recorded to have houses with running water and plumbing - in 2,000BC.
In the same year, similar seals had been found at Harappa, 600 kilometres to the north, in Punjab.
The excavations at Mohenja Daro and Harappa have led to the finding of terracotta lamps which show the age of the craft and pottery technique in this area.
College for Women Harappa Sahiwal, Pakistan Email: Fringebenefitl@hotmail.
The new paradigms that gain foothold in the 1950s suggest among other things that the Indus civilization built around the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro started to decline before the Aryan invasion (Blij and Mueller 2000, 386).