Hard Seed

Hard Seed

 

a seed that does not swell or germinate within its established period of viability. A hard seed has a tough impermeable coat, or testa, that does not allow water or air to reach the embryo.

Hard seeds are encountered most often in seed lots of leguminous herbs (clover, alfalfa, sweet clover), small-seeded vetch, and lupine. Their quantity depends on the conditions that existed during their formation and maturation. For example, in years of drought up to 60–65 percent of the seeds produced by red clover and alfalfa are hard. The number of hard seeds decreases after storage, which varies in time for different crops from several weeks to several years. The sowing of hard seeds results in non-uniform germination and sparse plantings. The impervious seed coats may be scarified before sowing to facilitate germination.

References in periodicals archive ?
The African oil bean seed is normally boiled for up to 12 hours or more to remove the hard seed coat.
nummularia is not easy because of hard seed coat and in nature conditions the seeds are able to germinate by aging and weathering in soil during months to one year [10,6, 9,4].
Curious kids love watching the magical transformation from a hard seed to soft, fluffy snack while budget conscious parents love its "cheap eats" status.
Seed can either be pre-soaked in tepid water for a few hours before sowing to soften the hard seed coat or the seed coat can be nicked with a sharp pointed knife to let water in.
TifQuik was developed to have reduced hard seed and thus faster germination and field establishment than Tifton 9," says Anderson.
Khosh-Khui and Bassiri (1976) found that hard seed coat was the principal cause for poor seed germination of myrtle's seed, and scarification with cold acid for 60 min at 20[degrees]C was the best treatment for removing dormancy.
Kigelia africana - botanists actually call it the sausage tree - sprouts hard seed pods 12 to 16 inches long that look and feel like salamis and overgrown bratwursts.
Many species, especially legumes, have hard seed coats and require weathering action to soften the coats before water can be absorbed.
The plant is unisexual, a strong climber with grayish fruits and edible seeds that are smooth and also have hard seed testa (schippers 2000).
These include late spring flowering and hard seed, which result in seedlings' sprouting at undesirable times in crop rotations.
Hard seeds, such as lupins should be filed with a nail file over the hard seed coating, or soaked overnight in water to help germination.