Alexander, Harold Rupert Leofric George, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

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Alexander, Harold Rupert Leofric George, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

(lĕf`rĭk), 1891–1969, British field marshal. His long military career began with service in World War I, followed by a period (1934–38) in the North-West Frontier Province, India (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). In World War II he directed the retreats at Dunkirk (1940) and in Burma (1942). Then, appointed (Aug., 1942) head of the Middle Eastern Command (see North Africa, campaigns inNorth Africa, campaigns in,
series of military contests for control of North Africa during World War II. The desert war started in 1940 and for more than two years thereafter seesawed between NE Libya and NW Egypt.
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), he directed the conquest of Sicily (1943) and the bitter fighting in Italy. In 1944, Alexander was made field marshal and Allied commander in chief in the Mediterranean. In 1946 he was appointed governor-general of Canada (holding the post until 1952) and was created viscount. He became minister of defense under Sir Winston Churchill and was raised (1952) to the rank of earl.

Bibliography

See his Alexander Memoirs: 1940–1945 (1962); biography by N. Nicholson (1973); study by W. G. F. Jackson (1972).