Hasidim

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Related to Hassidim: Chasidim, Chassid

Hasidim

or

Chassidim

(both: häsē`dĭm, khä–) [Heb.,=the pious], term used by the rabbis to describe those Jews who maintained the highest standard of religious observance and moral action. The term has been applied to movements at three distinct times. The first Hasidim, also called the Assideans or Hasideans, were an ancient Jewish sect that developed between 300 B.C. and 175 B.C. They were the most rigid adherents of Judaism in contradistinction to those Jews who were beginning to be affected by Hellenistic influences. The Hasidim led the resistance to the hellenizing campaign of Antiochus IV of Syria, and they figured largely in the early phases of the revolt of the MaccabeesMaccabees
or Machabees
, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon.
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. Their ritual strictness has caused some to see them as forerunners of the Pharisees. Throughout the Talmudic period numerous figures were referred to as Hasidim. During the 12th and 13th cent., however, there arose in Germany a specific group known as the Hasidei Ashkenaz. Influenced by Saadia ben Joseph and with messianic and mystical elements, it held as its central ideology the unity of God, the application of justice in all situations, social and economic equality, and martyrdom at the hands of the crusaders rather than compromise of any kind. The chief ethical work that derived from the group was the Sefer Hasidim (tr. Book of the Pious, 1973). The third movement to which the term Hasidim is applied is that founded in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov and known as HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
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.

Bibliography

See S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1962); S. G. Kramer, God and Man in the Sefer Hasidim (1966); A. L. Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973). See also bibliography under HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
..... Click the link for more information.
.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to Frantisek Langer, brother of Jiri Langer, the Jewish youth from Prague who left home to live among the Hassidim of Eastern Galicia, and author of Die Erotik der Kabbala, "During the war he had made friends with Franz Kafka, and the two men used to go for walks together in Prague.
Aram Harrow of the University of Bristol in England, along with Avinatan Hassidim and Seth Lloyd of MIT, propose that large data sets of linear equations could be encoded in quantum forms, such as the spins of nuclei, individual atoms or photons.
The Requestors ask, in their Request, to represent the citizens of Kiryat Tivon, Kfar Hassidim, Nofit, Sha'ar Ha'amakim and Rehassim (hereinafter: "the Group").
The Jewish community itself is highly diverse and ranges from the ultra-orthodox Hassidim to the mainly secular recent Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union.
According to Messianic Jews resident in Arad, since 2004 the Gur Hassidim have demonstrated regularly in front of the homes of Christians and Messianic Jews in Arad to protest alleged Christian proselytizing by this group.
Revolving around an ultraorthodox Jewish prophecy, a group of Hassidim based in Brooklyn, New York, plus a kidnapping and plenty of murders, Sam Bourne has spun a highly-charged, theologically accurate tale.
RABBI MENAHEM MENDEL of Kotzk (1787-1859) was one of the most remarkable figures of Hassidim, the populist Jewish mystical movement.
More recently in the United States, some publications (albeit not necessarily academic in focus) have drawn attention to the interactions between the Hassidim and other communities (sometimes other Jewish communities, such as S.