Hatra


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Hatra

(hă`trə), Arab. Al Hadr, ancient city and fortress, in modern-day Iraq, 68 mi (110 km) SW of Mosul. It flourished from the 1st cent. B.C. to the 2nd cent. A.D. under the Parthian Empire (see ParthiaParthia
, ancient country of Asia, SE of the Caspian Sea. In its narrowest limits it consisted of a mountainous region intersected with fertile valleys, lying S of Hyrcania and corresponding roughly to the modern Iranian province of Khorasan.
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), when it was a fortified religious and trading center. The city is noted for its many temples, dedicated to dieties of several ancient religious traditions; the largest is the Great Temple. Hatra resisted several Roman attempts to conquer it, but fell in A.D. 241 to Shapur IShapur I
or Sapor I
, d.272, king of Persia (241–72), son and successor of Ardashir I, of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was an able warrior king.
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, Sassanid king of Persia, and was destroyed. Excavated during the 20th cent., its ruins constituted some of the most significant stone monuments of Iraq, but in the 2015 the Islamist extremist group Islamic StateIslamic State
(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 razed them.

Hatra

 

a Parthian city, presently in ruins, in northern Iraq, near the village of al-Hadr. Hatra was founded before the Common Era. It flourished in the first and second centuries A.D. and was destroyed in 257. The city was built to a nearly oval plan and covered an area of approximately 320 hectares. There are remains of triple stone and mud-brick city walls with four gates, a stone palace-temple complex, dwellings, and burial structures. Round-shaped sculptures, reliefs, and other objects have been found there.

References in periodicals archive ?
Since then, the group has undertaken mass looting campaigns of museums and ruins in the ancient cities of Nimrud and Hatra, and most recently Palmyra in Syria.
A cela s'ajoutent la destruction de la tombe de Jonas a Mossoul, la demolition des ouvrages anciens de la bibliotheque de Mossoul, l'attaque farouche de la cite antique de Hatra ainsi que la destruction de la cite antique de Nimrud en mars 2015.
The destruction of Hatra marks a turning point in the appalling strategy of cultural cleansing underway inIraq," observed Irina Bokova, UNESCO's director-general.
To the Islamic State, the destruction of the Palmyra temple, like the destruction of ancient statues and monuments in Nimrud, Hatra and other regions under its control, is of a part with the destruction of"apostates," the decimation of communities like the Assyrian and Yazidi religious minorities, or the enslaving of women, or the beheading of Western hostages: It is an ethnic, religious and cultural cleansing of anything the zealots deem alien to the pure Islamic state.
In March, the ISIL fighters in Iraq razed 3,000-year old Nimrod and bulldozed 2,000-year old Hatra - both UNESCO world heritage sites.
Along with Palmyra in Syria, Petra in Jordan, and Baalbek in Lebanon, Hatra is a great Parthian city, added to the World Heritage List in 1985.
Hatra differs from Nimrud in being part of Arab heritage, capital of one of the first Arab states, and one in a chain of desert cities that included Palmyra and Petra.
The ISIL had formerly ruined ancient cities of Hatra and Nimrud in Iraq.
Abdulkarim said he remained concerned for Palmyra in light of the destruction wreaked by IS on ancient sites such as Nimrud and Hatra in neighbouring Iraq.
BAGHDAD - The Islamic State group has released a video in which militants can be seen using rifles and sledgehammers to destroy artefacts at the ancient city of Hatra in Iraq.
In the seven-minute clip filmed in the ancient city of Hatra the terrorists chip at the bases of sculptures and smash shrines.
And in early March, reports from Baghdad told of further iconoclastic crimes in the north of the country, including the obliteration of more Assyrian monuments at Nimrud and the razing of the Parthian ruins of Hatra.