Others cite Middle English narratives like Havelok the Dane
and Sir Orfeo for oral performance and variety of audience.
Furrow offers nuanced readings of the Anglo-Norman romances Estoire des Engleis, Le Lai d'Havelok, Horn, and Boeve de Haumtone contrasted with the Middle English Havelok the Dane
, King Horn, and the Auchinleck Bevis of Hampton.
To prove this point, the author makes comparisons not only between Hamlet and dream visions, but also some medieval ghost stories, and the thirteenth century romance Havelok the Dane, which is based on a narrative pattern not very different from that of Hamlet.
We might try to look at it from the point of view of another medieval text, namely the thirteenth-century Middle English romance of Havelok the Dane, whose structural similarity to Hamlet is well known, (13) and we may reflect on a passage from it where Havelok's newlywed wife discovers, at night, her husband's "second nature".
As for the spirit of duplication, it is clearly visible also in Havelok the Dane, where we have two kings, two usurpers, and two victims of those usurpers, victims who, in due time, become husband and wife, and both play the role of avengers, also the noble character of Havelok, and the mystical light his body emits, is revealed twice, first to Havelok's foster father, Grim, and then to his wife, Goldborough.
14) The quotations from Havelok the Dane will be taken from French and Hale's edition (1964) and the numbers of the lines refer to this edition.
It is a loose adaptation of the late-thirteenth-century English poetical romance, Havelok the Dane.
As Lewis was a medievalist who had read Havelok the Dane and thought it "great stuff" (Road 184), it is worthwhile to summarize it briefly before turning to Morris's Child Christopher.
Morris's story follows the same general outline, but it is much more complex in characterization than is Havelok the Dane (Talbot; Hodgson 157, 80-82).
While I agree with Lewis that modern psychology is an unnecessary hermeneutic for explicating Morris, I would still argue that the love interest Morris imparts into the story that he appropriated from Havelok the Dane has interesting psychological implications.
The analysed material comes from MED online, the Helsinki Corpus and the following texts: Exodus and Genesis (EM 1250), Floris and Blancheflur (EM 1300), Havelok the Dane (EM 1300), King Horn (EM 1300), Lazamon's Brut (EM 1300), Of Arthour and Merlin (EM 1330), Guy of Warwick (EM 1330), Sir Orfeo (EM 1330), Sawles warde (WM 1225), Vices and virtues (WM 1225), Ancrene Wisse (WM 1230), Kentish Semons (K 1275), Ayenbit of Inwite (K 1340) and The poems of William of Shoreham (K 1350).
Other analyzable early borrowings with the date of their first occurrence are hermitage 'a hermitage' (The place-names of the East Riding of Yorkshire and York 1280, see Smith 1937), pelrinage 'a pilgrimage', servage 'servitude, bondage, slavery' and taillage 'a royal land tax' (South English Legendary 1300), barnage 'the nobility' (Floris and Blauncheflur, Havelok the Dane and King Horn, all 1300) and passage 'the act of crossing or passing from one place to another' (South English Legendary, King Horn and Eleven Pains of Hell (2), all 1300).