Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl

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Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl

(vēk`tôr räo͞ol` ä`yä dā lä tô`rĕ), 1895–1979, Peruvian political leader, founder of the APRAAPRA
or the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, reformist political party in Peru, also called the Partido Aprista. Founded (1924) by Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre while in exile, the party's activities in Perú were led by José Carlos
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 party. Although he never held power and spent much of his political life in exile or in prison, he had great influence on contemporary hemispheric politics. A leading advocate of nationalist revolutions in Latin America, he championed the cause of the indigenous people and fought for radical, although expressly non-Communist, social and economic reforms. He was exiled in 1923 and after eight years returned to Peru, where he ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1931 and was imprisoned for 15 months. Because APRA advocated the overthrow of the oligarchy that had ruled Peru since colonial days, the party was outlawed from 1931 to 1934 and from 1935 to 1945, when José Luis Bustamante y Rivero became president with APRA's support. Dissident Apristas revolted in Callao in Oct., 1948; the party was again outlawed. In November, Manuel OdríaOdría, Manuel
, 1897–1974, president of Peru (1948–56). A conservative general, he became army chief of staff in 1946 and seized power (1948) after leading an anti-APRA coup that forced Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre to seek asylum.
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 seized power and forced Haya to seek asylum in the Colombian embassy in Lima. The Peruvian government granted him safe conduct in 1954 only after years of bitter denunciations from liberals throughout the hemisphere. APRA was legalized in 1956, but Haya continued to live mostly abroad until 1962 when he returned to campaign for the presidency. He obtained a slim plurality but not enough to be constitutionally elected; a military junta nullified the elections. Running again in 1963, Haya was defeated, but APRA remained popular.

Bibliography

See study by R. J. Alexander (1973).

Haya de la Torre, Victor Raul

 

Born Feb. 22, 1895, in Trujillo, Peru. Peruvian political figure and sociologist.

During his student years, he fought against the Leguía y Salcedo dictatorship (1919–30), for which he was exiled from the country; he spent 1923–31 in emigration. In 1924 he was one of the founders of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), a bloc of bourgeois and petit bourgeois elements. He served as minister without portfolio during 1945–48 and played an important role in the government of President Bustamante. After the unsuccessful attempt of the Apristas to organize an uprising in 1948, he took advantage of the right of sanctuary in a foreign embassy. In 1954 he emigrated from the country, but soon returned. In 1962 and 1963 he ran for president. Haya de la Torre developed a theory of separate spheres of human society—artificially constructed by him—each of which allegedly had exceptional laws of development. He connected this theory with the assertion that imperialism in dependent countries plays a progressive role.