Umar

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Umar

(o͞omär`) or

Omar

(ō`mär), c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
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 as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power. The Muslim generals pushed conquests far and wide—into Syria, Egypt, and the Persian Empire. Umar also laid the administrative base of the empire, creating the office of kadi and establishing fixed taxes. He reopened the canals of Mesopotamia and the waterway from the Nile to the Red Sea. Umar was assassinated by a foreign slave. He had appointed a group to select his successor, and the choice fell on UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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.

Omar

, Umar
died 644 ad, the second caliph of Islam (634--44). During his reign Islamic armies conquered Syria and Mesopotamia: murdered
References in periodicals archive ?
NOWSHERA -- District President Ahl-e-Sunat Wal Jammat Qari Abdi Shah said that it was appreciable that Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa governments announced public holiday on 1st Muharram in respect of Hazrat Umar (RA).
ISLAMABAD -- Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa governments have announced a public holiday on first of Muharram to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.
According to Police sources, Hazrat S/O Hazrat Umar was cleaning his pistol at home, suddenly a fire was shot at him.
But Finance Minister Hazrat Umar Zakhilwal informed expenses had surged following transfer of security responsibilities to Afghan security forces.
One of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of the Islamic religion, was called Hazrat Umar.
Prospects for trade and economic cooperation and issues of attracting investments for implementation of infrastructure regional projects were discussed at a meeting of President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon with Afghan Minister of Finance Hazrat Umar in Kabul, the president's press service reported.
In the Bin Qasim area another man, Hazrat Umar, was gunned down.
According to well placed sources, a considerable part of Afghanistan had been part of newly established Islamic Government during reign of Hazrat Umar (second caliph) didn't take interest in damage of two standing statues of Buddha but more focused in preaching of Islam.
An Imaginative message of Hazrat Umar (RA) to the Egyptian King of that time goes like this: O breeze
Afghan Finance Minister Hazrat Umar Zakhailwal in his opening remarks thanked the Pakistani people and the government for looking after the Afghan Refugees for the last three decades.
Unfortunately, no one - either from the liberals or the PPP leadership - has come to support her claim that, during the time of Caliph Hazrat Umar, there was no constitution and thus the Caliph did not enjoy constitutional immunity.
Garden designer Diarmuid Gavin with Hazrat Umar and Samiha Hasib, both aged eight Picture: Loretta Brennan LB061108grow-1