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pain in the head, caused by dilation of cerebral arteries, muscle contraction, insufficient oxygen in the cerebral blood, reaction to drugs, etc.



one of the most frequent symptoms of various diseases.

Headache arises chiefly in response to irritation of the nerve endings (receptors) of the meninges, venous sinuses, and tunicary and cerebral vessels. Leading factors in the development of a headache include inflammatory affection of the meninges (resulting in irritation of the meningovascular receptors by toxins of the pathogenic agent), compression of the receptors by edema in brain tumors and other accumulative processes (for example, abscess, tuberculoma, and cys-ticercosis), impairment of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid accompanied by an elevation in intracranial pressure, vascular diseases (hypertension, hypotension, migraine) that cause a change in extracranial and intracranial vascular tone, chronic cardiovascular insufficiency (for example, congestion of the cerebral veins), and infectious diseases and intoxication accompanied by toxic irritation of the nerve endings. Headache also arises through affection of the cervical nerve roots of the spinal cord and affection of the perivascular neuroplexuses of the major blood vessels of the head (for example, in cervical migraine).

Localization of the headache and determination of its character, time of appearance, and other features are important in discovering its causes. Its course and accompanying signs should also be taken into account. Neurological examination and examination of the internal organs, eyes (vision, fundus oculi, intraocular pressure), ears, paranasal sinuses, endocrine glands, and cerebrospinal fluid are also necessary. In a number of cases physicians also make use of cranial roentgenography, electroencephalography, angioenceph-alography or pneumoencephalography, and rheoenceph-alography.

Treatment includes elimination of the cause of the headache and the prescription of preparations (vasodilative or vasoconstrictive, decreasing intracranial pressure [dehydrating], and analgetic) that counteract the cause of the headache.


Platonova, E. P. Golovnye boli. Moscow, 1960.
Botez, M., and R. Şerbánescu. Algille craniene şi craniofaciale: Fiziopatologie, Diagnosti, Tratament. Bucharest, 1965.
Heyck, H. Bóle gtowy. Warsaw, 1960.



A deep form of pain, with a characteristic aching quality, localized in the head.
References in periodicals archive ?
For the diagnosis of common primary headaches, International Classification of Headache Disorders (2nd edition) criteria were applied.
During onset, headaches were localised to frontoparietal side of tumour in supratentorial tumours, and bifrontoparietal in sellar tumours and in hydrocephalus cases, bi-occipital in infratentorial tumours.
Turtle Headache: A Case Report and Approach To Hypnic Headaches.
Migraines are different from regular headaches because they are usually much, much worse, and can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and severe sensitivity to light and sound.
Tension headaches are often related to high stress levels; when you are stressed, if the muscles in your neck, upper back, and shoulders tense up, a headache can result.
Thunderclap headaches, headaches radiating to the neck, and temporal headaches in an older individual are the examples of headaches where imaging may be helpful.
Demographic features, used medications, and presence of headaches were recorded.
Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.
Most headaches are attributed to stress, hunger or lack of sleep and are often treated quickly with over-the-counter pain relievers.
About 90 percent of headaches are primary headaches--such as tension, sinus, cluster, and migraine headaches," says David Borsook, MD, PhD, co-director of the Center for Pain and the Brain, which has a branch at MGH.
A 29-year-old woman presents with a history of frequent headaches over the past 12 months that include pressure pain on her forehead, under her eyes, and over her cheeks, often with nasal congestion but not fever or purulent nasal discharge.
Although there is no consensus about the headache management, but on conducting a statistical study of probable causes of ocular headache it was found that occurrences of anterior headaches were more common.