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primitive methods of medical treatment, well-known among all peoples from antiquity and usually accompanied by various rituals.

In the early stages of the development of mankind, quackery was not differentiated from folk medicine and was practiced by sorcerers (healers and veduny}. However, sorcery was under the influence of theurgic (religious) medicine, in which the belief prevailed that illnesses came from evil spirits. In the class society, people came to use sorcerers in the interests of the religious cult. Gradually, sorcery changed into a profession, a means of enrichment for the sorcerers themselves. With the development of community life, sorcery’s content, form, and views changed considerably. Present-day manifestations of sorcery differ according to such factors as territorial and national peculiarities, the character of traditions, the level of general culture, and the extent of the diffusion of religious prejudices.

Ignorantly borrowing the methods of scientific medicine, the sorcerer reduced treatment to crude, sometimes criminal quackery and frequently resorted to primitive instruments and operations (pathological childbirth and abortions). In capitalist countries, the pharmaceutical market is flooded with patent preparations. Proper control for the issuing of such preparations is not exercised by government agencies. These preparations are promoted by shameless advertising created by private owners of companies, Who become both “healers” and salesmen of their own drugs.

In bourgeois states, particularly in colonial countries and those with weakly developed economies, the inaccessibility of medical help for the vast majority of the workers also furthers the development of quackery. Quackery was wide-spread in prerevolutionary Russia, especially in the villages; the inadequacy of medical aid, superstition, and ignorance were conducive to sorcery. In the outlying national regions of imperial Russia, sorcerers—khakims, tabibs, and khetims — abused the confidence of the working people.

In the USSR, thanks to the growth of the culture and material welfare of the people, the broad availability of free qualified medical help, and the development of hygiene education, quackery has no soil on which to grow. The measures of the Soviet state directed at the development of public health care are important in the struggle against quackery, which is most effective when combined with atheistic propaganda. By Soviet law, criminal accountability has been established for the illegal practice of medicine.



inferior doctor; formerly a barber performing dentistry and surgery. [Medicine: Misc.]
Dulcamara, Dr.
offered bad burgundy as panacea for lovelessness. [Ital. Opera: Donizetti, Elixir of Love; EB, 5: 953–954]
Rezio, Dr. Baratarian
court physician; practically starves Sancho Panza in the interest of diet. [Span. Lit.: Don Quixote]
Rock, Dr. Richard
fat, 18th-century quack; professed to cure every imaginable disease. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
Sangrado, Dr.
ignorant physician; believed blood not necessary for life. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Walker, Dr.
great 18th-century quack, forever advising against disreputable doctors. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
References in periodicals archive ?
section] 1961 (2012) (RICO); see also Nalven, supra note 316, at 10 (describing the criminal statutes available to the DOJ for health fraud enforcement).
Their site has numerous informative resources as well as providing assistance in reporting health fraud to the authorities.
As a result of this concentrated effort, the FBI's health fraud caseload now exceeds 2,000 open investigations.
Companies need to be active in recording and investigating their fraudulent claims information with associations such as the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) and Coalition Against Insurance Fraud (CAIF).
To sort out the good from the bad, the National Council Against Health Fraud commissioned a Task Force for Nutrition Diploma Mills to study the problem of phony credentials in this field.
According to Renner, "arming consumers with the knowledge required to recognize harmful therapies and products" is the best defense against health fraud.
in modern times, quackery is known as health fraud.
The Priority Health Fraud & Abuse department is targeting specific practices in an effort to recover funds and end fraudulent practices.
The government's primary antifraud tool is the Health Care Fraud Prevention and Enforcement Action Team (HEAT), created in 2009 to identify and investigate health fraud and abuse.
3 billion in health fraud settlements & judgments recouped by federal government
Also, corporate health fraud is among the most commonly pursued complaints, and the DOJ is determined to prosecute more claims.
Watterson, who spoke about HIPAA audits at the American Health Lawyers Association's health fraud and compliance forum.

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