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during the French Revolution, a left Jacobin faction that took its name from J.-R. Hébert, one of its leaders. The Hébertists, who included A. F. Momoro, F. N. Vincent, and C. Ronsin, were tried as a group in the spring of 1794.

The faction formed during the winter of 1793–94 and, in large measure, reflected the social discontent of the poorer elements of the working people. The Hébertists advocated an intensification of revolutionary terror. They demanded strict observance of the Law of the Maximum and called for relentless struggle against speculation and sabotage by large-scale landowners and well-to-do peasants. They supported the policy of dechristianization and sought to expel G. J. Danton’s right-wing Jacobins from the National Convention and the ministries.

Demanding greater severity in the reign of terror against speculators and enemies of the revolution, the Hébertists threatened in March 1794 to lead a revolt against the Committee of Public Safety. They hoped to purge the government of moderates, but they received no support from the Paris Commune or the revolutionary masses. Arrested by the government on March 14, the Hébertists were tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal and, on March 24, guillotined.

References in periodicals archive ?
Although the Revolutionary Government had recently managed successful show trials of the Dantonists and Hebertists alike, putting over a hundred Robespierrists on trial would have been far riskier.
It surmised, as did many observers, that this strike to the left betokened some abatement of the violent course of Revolutionary politics: not only did the execution of the Hebertists mark the first time that the more moderate of two struggling revolutionary parties had prevailed over the more radical, it was also the first time, since 1789, that such a contest had been carried out entirely within the institutional structure of the standing government.
If Robespierre's move against the Hebertists had seemed a necessary excision of the Revolution's most violent, uncontrollable members, that against Danton and his associates suggested not an effort to guide the Revolution to a moderate close but an attempt to seize uncontested power, to purge not one but all other competing factions.