Hebrides

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Hebrides

 

an archipelago, part of Great Britain, in the Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Scotland and comprising approximately 500 islands, of which about 100 are inhabited. Total area, 7,500 sq km.

The Outer Hebrides are separated from the Inner Hebrides by the straits of The Minch and the Little Minch and by the Sea of the Hebrides. The Inner Hebrides include the islands of Skye, Mull, Islay, Jura, and Rum. The terrain consists mainly of rugged hilly and low mountain country (200-600 m), typically of Cenozoic effusive rock. On the islands of Skye and Mull individual cone-shaped peaks rise above the volcanic plateaus—for example, in the Cuillin Hills on Skye, which reach 1,009 m. In the Outer Hebrides, which include the islands of Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and Barra, socle lowlands predominate (100-150 m), consisting primarily of Archaean rock (mostly gneiss). In some places there are small massifs rising to a height of 799 m and often containing Paleozoic intrusions. There are many traces of the Pleistocene glaciation, such as troughs, cirques and boulder belts. The islands have a damp maritime climate with average July temperatures of 12°-14° C and average January temperatures of 4°-6° C; annual precipitation is between 1,000 and 2,000 mm. The meadow soils consist of coarse humic and peaty turf. Steep, bare slopes are the rule, but now and then birch groves and heath may be seen, and peat bogs cover the gentler slopes. The population is engaged mainly in fishing and cattle breeding. Tweed manufacture and the tourist industry are also important.

L. R. SEREBRIANNYI

References in periodicals archive ?
Yet in a climate of acute xenophobia, one that obviously drove Group Settlement in the first place as an attempt to shore up Western Australia's defences in a physical and a psychological sense, this quest for homogeneity would cause particular problems for the Hebrideans.
Why the Hebrideans II: their status as Highlanders and defenders of Empire
For those Western Australians who were obsessed in the 1920s with their state's security, particularly vis-a-vis an eternally rising Japan, the arrival of the Hebrideans was particularly welcome.
Based on these stereotypes, many in Western Australia hoped that the Hebrideans would serve as farmer-militiamen, to be unleashed should Japan decide to attack Australia's 'back door'.
The military prowess of the Hebrideans and their established record as fishermen at home were two of the most celebrated aspects of their character, ones that were frequently touted in the press.
Thus, unlike the slum dwellers of urban England, and even Lowland Scotland, this combination of channeled militarism and experience with agriculture made the Hebrideans especially attractive to Western Australian officials, for they were already purportedly virile from the fresh air and hardscrabble nature of the Hebridean countryside.
62) These heightened expectations meant that if the Hebrideans failed in their assigned tasks, criticisms surely would be heaped upon them rather than on the inherent flaws in the scheme itself.
While at one level the Hebrideans who settled Group 80 were unquestionably British, and accordingly were welcomed in Western Australia, and at yet another Scottish, with all the benefits their reputation as sturdy pioneers conferred, they also held a third status that to many rendered them unwilling, or worse, unsuitable for rehabilitation.
To many Western Australians, the Celtic nature of the Hebrideans rendered them outsiders, as foreign as any non-British immigrants were.
Such fears of polluting elements that threatened to destroy the hard-won ethno-racial purity of Western Australia were central to how the Hebrideans were treated by the state government and by their fellow settlers from the outset.
Such worries about the willingness or the ability of the Hebrideans to be rehabilitated evidently were present even before they arrived in Fremantle.
66) While these Victorian notions of self-help were expected from all the Groupies, they were especially demanded from the Hebrideans.