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portable antitank, antipersonnel, and anti-landing obstacles. Antitank hedgehogs are made of reinforced concrete, section steel, or rails. Individual hedgehogs can be joined by steel beams and wire. Antipersonnel hedgehogs are made of three pickets, each sharpened at both ends, 1.5 m long, and attached at the ends and at half-way points by barbed wire. Antitank and antipersonnel hedgehogs, set in several ranks, are used to block roads and streets. Antilanding hedgehogs are set in the water at depths of 1.8–2.5 m at points of possible sea (lake) landings.



(Erinaceidae), a family of mammals of the order Insect!vora, containing 20 species in eight genera, divided into two subfamilies: the gymnure (Echinosoricinae) and the spiny hedgehog (Erinaceinae). The spiny hedgehogs have short tails, spines on the back, and a subcutaneous ring muscle that turns the body into a ball upon contraction. Hedgehogs are found in Europe, temperate latitudes of Asia, southern Asia (India), and Africa. There are three genera. Four species are known in the USSR: long-eared, Brandt’s, European, and Daur hedgehogs.

The long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) has long ears and soft white fur on the underside of its body. Length, 15–19 cm. It lives in southeastern part of the European USSR, the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, and Middle Asia.

Brandt’s hedgehog (Paraechinus hypomelas) has a spot on its vertex that has no needles. Length, 22–27 cm; tail, 23–27 mm. The needles reach 4 cm. This species is found in Central Asia.

The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) has small ears, and the underside of the body is brownish. Length, 20–25 cm; tail, 20–35 mm. It lives in the European USSR, except for the north, and in the Far East, usually in forests, gardens, thick underbrush, river floodplains, and steppes. It makes its nest under hedges, in pits, or in shallow burrows and hibernates in winter. The European hedgehog feeds primarily on insects but also eats small vertebrates (including snakes) and an insignificant amount of plant life. It is beneficial because it destroys harmful insects.

The Daur hedgehog (E. dauricus) is found in the Transbaikalia.


Ognev, S. I. Zveri Vostochnoi Evropy i Severnoi Azii, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1928.
Bobrinskii, N. A., B. A. Kuznetsov, and A. P. Kuziakin. Opredelitel’ mlekopitaiushchikh SSSR, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hedgehogs are in trouble nationally, having declined by 30 per cent since the Millennium.
The new officer will be tasked with engaging people of all ages and backgrounds in helping their local hedgehogs by making outside spaces, such as gardens and churchyards, hedgehog-friendly.
Although there has never been a full national census of hedgehogs, indications are that British populations have been in decline for many time.
We are asking councils, tool hire companies, etc to place waterproof stickers onto their cutting machines that remind operatives to check for hedgehogs before starting work.
FAY VASS, chief executive, British Hedgehog Preservation Society
Avoid slug pellets - Hedgehogs hoover up more than 100 invertebrates such as snails, slugs and worms every night, so there's no need to use chemicals.
Cover drains and gullies: Hedgehogs have poor eyesight, but are quite curious, meaning they fall into holes and get stuck, so cover up any open drains and gullies.
We have known for a number of years that hedgehogs are in decline in the UK, so we joined with People's Trust for Endangered Species to deliver the Hedgehog Street project.
Small holes will be used to link up green spaces, while local residents are being asked to make holes in their garden fences to allow hedgehogs to move freely.
Breeders say the trend is partly fueled by the fact that hedgehogs require less maintenance than dogs and cats, and because they emit little odor -- in sharp contrast with rodents and rabbits.
Its aims are simple: | To encourage and give advice to the public concerning the care of hedgehogs particularly when injured, sick, treated cruelly, orphaned or in any other danger.
The alarming prospect of a Britain without hedgehogs was reported as far afield as Brazil and Thailand, and featured on Radio Moscow's Voice Of Russia this week.