Heike Kamerlingh Onnes


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Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike

(hī`kə kä`mərlĭng ôn`əs), 1853–1926, Dutch physicist. He was, from 1882, professor of physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He made important studies of the properties of helium and, in attempting to solidify it, produced a temperature within one degree of absolute zero. In the course of his low temperature experiments, he discovered the property of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
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 in certain metals. For these researches he received the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh:

see Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeKamerlingh Onnes, Heike
, 1853–1926, Dutch physicist. He was, from 1882, professor of physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He made important studies of the properties of helium and, in attempting to solidify it, produced a temperature within one degree of absolute zero.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike

 

Born Sept. 21, 1853, in Groningen; died Feb. 21, 1926, in Leiden. Dutch physicist and chemist. Doctor of philosophical sciences (1879). Professor at the University of Leiden from 1882 to 1924.

In an effort to obtain liquid helium, Kamerlingh Onnes organized a specially equipped cryogenic laboratory at the University of Leiden, which became a world center for low-temperature physics and was subsequently named after him. Here he first achieved temperatures close to absolute zero and in 1908 obtained liquid helium. Kamerlingh Onnes studied the physical properties of various substances at low temperatures, especially those of mercury, lead, and tin. While investigating the electrical resistance of mercury in 1911, he observed that the resistance disappeared at a temperature of 4. 1°K. This phenomenon was called superconductivity. He also worked on thermodynamics, magneto-optics, and radioactivity. Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1913.

WORKS

“On the Changes of the Electrical Resistance of Pure Metals at Very Low Temperatures. V. The Disappearance of the Resistance of Mercury.” Communication From the Physical Laboratory at the University of Leiden. 1911, no. 122, p. 13.

REFERENCE

Keesom, W. Gelii. Moscow, 1949. (Translated from English.) (Containsa bibliography of Kamerlingh Onnes’ works.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the pioneer in low temperature research who worked at Leyden, Holland, used the method of lowering temperature by reducing the vapor pressure of liquid helium.
Takano plans to present his findings at a European conference in September in The Hague, near Leiden where Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity 100 years ago.
Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist, and to this day it is still one of the most dramatic phenomena that occurs in physics.
Conventional superconductors were first discovered in the early 20th century, when Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes cooled mercury to four degrees Kelvin (-269 degrees Celsius), and observed that the material's electrical resistance dropped to zero.
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Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was born as the first of three siblings on September 21, 1853, at Groningen, The Netherlands.
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Its physics and astronomy laboratories were once the base for Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the distinguished scientist who first discovered the temperature of absolute zero at the end of last century.
Since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, researchers around the world have been trying to exploit the phenomena in a variety of applications, including medical imaging, power generation, and motors.
The very first superconductor was found in 1911, when Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered that mercury lost its electrical resistance when cooled to 4 kelvins.
Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes achieved the feat in 1908, and in 1913 received the Nobel Prize in physics for his efforts.
Conventional superconductors are explained through the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, which was formulated some 40 years after the first superconductor was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911.