Reading the chapter, one has the sensation of paging through travel diaries of Heinrich Heine, Dorothea Schlegel, Arnold Zweig, Rachel Katzenelson, Henriette Herz, Fanny Lewald, Heinrich Graetz
, Vladimir Jabotinsky, Georg Simmel, Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and others.
With the rise of German nationalism in the 19th century, Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz
"retrospectively" crafted a discrete identity for the ghettoised people - mapping their origin to an old kingdom and wandering exiles.
The Zionist movement would have been impossible were it not for the work of Heinrich Graetz
, the historian who created the historical image of the Jews which we all learned at school.
Hoffman's book explores the intensive effort to reclaim Jesus for the modern Jewish community through a detailed analysis of the writings of such leading Jewish scholars of the period as Moses Mendelssohn, Abraham Geiger, Heinrich Graetz
, and Kaufman Kohler, as well as Yiddish writers, often quite secular in their orientation, such as Chaim Zhitlovsky and Sholem Asch, whose works are largely unknown in dialogue circles today and who were deeply connected with the East European effort to develop a modern Jewish cultural identity.
If to demonstrate Hirsch's (unquestionably) controversial position about the nature of Torah, would it not have made more sense to cite a salient passage from Zacharias Frankel, or Abraham Geiger, or Heinrich Graetz
, with whom Hirsch actually disagreed on the very topic of the nature of the sacredness of Jewish texts?
The historian Heinrich Graetz
(History of the Jews) writes that: "Rashi's mantle fell upon his grandsons and sons-in-law, who were his greatest disciples.
Jewish thinkers like Moses Mendelssohn, Heinrich Heine, Heinrich Graetz
, Sigmund Freud, Hermann Cohen, Franz Rosenzweig, Walter Benjamin and others took issue with this dimension of German Idealist philosophy by creating counter-narratives or, since Kant's original views were based on an analysis of the historical Israelites, counter-histories (with the ironic result that in Mack's system Heine, the writer, constructs a counter-history while Graetz, one of the foremost historians of the Jewish people, writes a counter-narrative).
Fortunately, Scott Bradbury does not subscribe to the negative view of Heinrich Graetz
and others as regards the authenticity and historical reliability of this epistle.
Further testament to Saladin's tolerance comes from the eminent German-Jewish historian of the Nineteenth Century, Heinrich Graetz
Simon Dubnov (1860-1941), author of a comprehensive History of the Jews and numerous other seminal works, made his mark as the pre-eminent Jewish historian since Heinrich Graetz
, in his magisterial works, attempted to integrate Ibero-Jewish history into his concept of universal history; others, like Isaak Markus Jost, suggested an analogy between the dichotomy of Ash kenas and Sepharad of old and the modern one of "German" and "Polish" Jewry, thus declaring the educated middle-class Jewry in nineteenth-century Germany heirs to the achievements of their Iberian ancestors-in-spirit.
Whether through the more traditional contrast of Isaac Markus Jost and Heinrich Graetz
, or the more startling juxtaposition of Daniel Boyarin and Berel Wein, Brenner shows how what unites them is their use of history to shape a Jewish past in their own image.