Hejaz


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Related to Hejaz: Nejd

Hejaz

or

Hedjaz

(both: hējăz`, hĕjäz`), region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. MeccaMecca
or Makkah
, city (1993 pop. 966,381), capital of the Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. The birthplace c.A.D. 570 of Muhammad the Prophet, it is the holiest city of Islam, and the goal of the annual Muslim hajj. It is c.
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 is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior desert. There are several oases and some wadis (watercourses) where livestock and crops, such as dates and wheat, are raised. Economically important cities include Taif and Yanbu. The junction of the main north-south and east-west highways of Saudi Arabia, Taif is an important mountain city and market. Yanbu on the Red Sea is a major petrochemical city, the terminus for two oil pipelines. Hejaz is, however, more important as a place of pilgrimage. Each year many thousands of Muslim pilgrims come into Hejaz, mainly through JiddaJidda
or Jedda
, city (1993 est. pop. 2,058,000), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea. Jidda is the port of Mecca (c.45 mi/72 km to the east) and annually receives a huge influx of pilgrims, mainly from Africa, Indonesia, and Pakistan.
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, the chief port, to visit the holy cities of Mecca and MedinaMedina
, Arabic Medinat an-Nabi [city of the Prophet] or Madinat Rasul Allah [city of the apostle of Allah], city (1993 pop. 608,226), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. It is situated c.
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.

Following the fall (1258) of the caliphate of Baghdad, Hejaz came under Egyptian control. In 1517 it came under Turkish suzerainty, although nominal rule remained in the hands of the Hashemite sherifs of Mecca. In the early 19th cent. Hejaz was raided by the WahhabisWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
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; peace was restored in 1817 by the governor of Egypt. After 1845, Hejaz came again under direct Turkish control. To improve communications, the Turks built the Hejaz railway (completed 1908) from Damascus to Medina; it was severely damaged during World War I and later abandoned. The Hejaz was in 1916 proclaimed independent by Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
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, the sherif of Mecca, who with the aid of T. E. LawrenceLawrence, T. E.
(Thomas Edward Lawrence), 1888–1935, British adventurer, soldier, and scholar, known as Lawrence of Arabia. While a student at Oxford he went on a walking tour of Syria and in 1911 joined a British Museum archaeological expedition in Mesopotamia.
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 destroyed Turkish authority. Husayn was himself defeated in 1924 by Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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, ruler of NejdNejd
or Najd
, region, central Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, the country's capital and major city, is located there. The Nejd is a vast plateau from 2,500 to 5,000 ft (762–1,524 m) high.
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 and founder of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 26,419,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, who annexed his domain. The formal union of Hejaz and Nejd into Saudi Arabia was proclaimed in 1932.

Hejaz

 

a province in Saudi Arabia. Area, approximately 390,000 sq km. Population, approximately 2 million. The administrative and chief economic center is the city of Jidda. The population is engaged chiefly in nomadic livestock raising. Grain crops and dates and other fruit trees are grown in the oases and wadis. Fishing and coral gathering are practiced along the coast. The province has an oil refinery, a cement plant, and enterprises for processing metal and agricultural produce. There is also some handicraft cottage industry.

In the early seventh century, Muhammad first preached the new religion of Islam in the Hejaz, in the city of Mecca. The He-jaz was part of the Arabian Caliphate and, after the dissolution of the Caliphate, part of the Fatimid, Ayyubid, and Mameluke states. It became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. It was occupied by troops of the Egyptian pasha Muhammad Ali from 1811 to 1818 and remained an Egyptian province until 1840. Later it was ruled by a Turkish governor. In 1916 an insurrection against Turkish domination led by Husayn ibn Ali established the Hejaz as an independent kingdom.

In 1925 the Hejaz was conquered by the ruler of the Nejd, Ibn Saud, and made part of the newly formed state of Hejaz, Nejd, and regions annexed by Ibn Saud—all of which have been known as Saudi Arabia since 1932.

Hejaz

, Hedjaz, Hijaz
a region of W Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba: formerly an independent kingdom; united with Nejd in 1932 to form Saudi Arabia. Area: about 348 600 sq. km (134 600 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Abdul Mohsen Abanami, director of the general Department for Engineering Affairs and Support Services at the SCTA, said the pavilion highlights the diversity of the Makkah province, which was part of the old Hejaz regio, with its rich urban heritage.
It was the Wahhabi army of the Saudi prince which moved the stone back to Mecca, after he conquered the lands of Al Qaramita and the Hejaz.
Winding its way from Damascus through the vast desert wastes of Jordan and into the spectacular barren mountains of northwest Saudi Arabia, a distance of more than 1,500km, the Hejaz Railway was a testament to the fading but still potent power of the Ottomans in Arabia.
The Middle East region boasts some of the old iconic railways, such as the Hejaz Railway, conceived at the end of the 19th century and still running today, but it is the names of luxury trains such as the Orient Express of Europe, the Blue Train of South Africa and the Eastern and Oriental of Southeast Asia that conjure up a world of dream travel.
It was German companies who built the Hejaz railways in the early 20th century, and who since then have been present at every step in the development of the modern economy of Saudi Arabia and the expansion of its infrastructure.
Bilateral relations between Germany and Saudi Arabia are friendly and untroubled, and they were formalized by the friendship treaty between the German Reich and the Kingdom of Hejaz, Najd and the affiliated territories as early as 1929, i.
In 1917 Aqaba was the Turks' only Red Sea port and its capture, like the destruction of the Hejaz Railway, was vital.
It was Faisal who conquered the Hejaz in the 1920s and established the base of Wahhabism in Mecca.
The 'Exclusion' installation housing the artists' work takes the form of a purpose built structure referencing traditional housing in the Hejaz region.
Amman is inviting investors to support a $300 million railway line between Amman and Amman Airport that will follow the alignment of the Hejaz Railway.
Mughassil was a military commander of the Iranian-sponsored Saudi Shia group called Hizballah Al Hejaz and had lived in Iran since the attack, where he continued to be a significant operative in Iranian subversive plots in the Arabian Peninsula.