Hemiplegia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

hemiplegia

[‚hē·mə′plē·jə]
(medicine)
Unilateral paralysis of the body.

Hemiplegia

 

complete loss of voluntary movements in the arm and leg on one side. There are organic and functional hemiplegias.

Organic hemiplegia may arise from disruption of the cerebral blood circulation (hemorrhage in the brain, thrombosis or embolism of the cerebral blood vessels), tumor, or inflammatory diseases of the brain (such as encephalitis and arachnoiditis). Functional hemiplegia is caused by hysteria. Organic hemiplegia results from injury by a pathological process to the motor pyramidal system (the nerve formation extending from the cerebral cortex to the anterior horns of the spinal cord). In organic hemiplegia, muscle tone and tendon reflexes increase in the paralyzed limbs, and pathological reflexes are formed. The absence of movements in the limbs is combined with partial dysfunction of the mimetic muscles on the same side, occasionally on the other side. Cyanosis, edema, and coldness of the limbs often appear on the affected side. These symptoms are absent in functional hemiplagia. Normal movements may be restored, depending on the nature of the process and degree of involvement of the pyramidal system. Hemiplegia sometimes has residual effects. Functional hemiplegia disappears without a trace.

Treatment consists of elimination of the main disease responsible for the hemiplegia. Early use of massage and exercise therapy is essential. Nervous system stimulants and agents that decrease muscle tone are administered.

REFERENCE

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 2. Moscow, 1962. Pages 92-101.

V. S. ROTENBERG

References in periodicals archive ?
h he Hemiplegia factfile | Hemiplegia is a type of cerebral palsy that can result from damage to different parts of the brain that control muscle movements.
In our study, although admission and discharge FIM scores in patients with left hemiplegia were higher, FIM gain and FIM efficiency were higher in patients with right hemiplegia.
Children with hemiplegia have varying degrees of weakness and lack of control on one side of their body caused by brain damage.
A 39-year-old female patient was referred to the neurology intensive care unit (ICU) with loss of consciousness, hemiplegia on the right side of the body, and aphasia.
The reflections on the preliminary stages showed that Cathy was not using a brailler because of her left hemiplegia, and as a result she did not know braille at all.
Physical examination revealed an ipsilateral left-sided hemiplegia and contralateral loss of sensation.
Children with hemiplegia, a form of CP that affects the limbs on one side of the body, frequently underutilize their affected limb regardless of their functional abilities.
In 1906, Spanish otorhinolaryngologist Antonio Garcia Tapia became the first to describe a lesion of the vagus and hypoglossal nerves with contralateral hemiplegia.
Improvement in hemiplegia rehabilitation methods has not been attained by perfecting techniques which had proved their worth in the treatment of other motor diseases, for example fracture sequalae, but rather by a re-examination of the problem in the light of scientific data in the field of neurophysiology.
The court noted that the undisputed facts and reasonable inferences revealed that William was a man afflicted with complete hemiplegia on his left-side stemming from a stroke suffered in the past, which rendered him a high risk for falls.