Stuart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement

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Stuart or Stewart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement,

known as

Cardinal York,

1725–1807, claimant to the British throne, b. Rome. Second son of James Francis Edward StuartStuart or Stewart, James Francis Edward,
1688–1766, claimant to the British throne, son of James II and Mary of Modena; called the Old Pretender.
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 (the Old Pretender), he was the Jacobite duke of York until the death (1788) of his brother Charles Edward StuartStuart or Stewart, Charles Edward,
1720–88, claimant to the British throne, b. Rome. First son of James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender), he was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and as the Young Pretender.
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 (the Young Pretender), when he became royal claimant as Henry IX. He was the last of the direct male line of James II and the last pretender to press a claim to the throne (see StuartStuart
or Stewart,
royal family that ruled Scotland and England. The Stuart lineage began in a family of hereditary stewards of Scotland, the earliest of whom was Walter (d. 1177), grandson of a Norman adventurer.
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, family). He was in France in 1745, ready to help in the Scottish Jacobite rebellion, and on his return to Italy was made (1747) a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1761 he was also made bishop of Frascati, where he lived and worked for years. His villa was sacked by the French in 1799, and he fled eventually to Venice. George III of Great Britain granted him a pension, and in gratitude Cardinal York bequeathed to George IV (then prince of Wales) the crown jewels of the Stuarts.
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