Austen Henry Layard

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Layard, Austen Henry

 

Born Mar. 5, 1817, in Paris; died July 5,1894, in London. British archaeologist and diplomat. Envoy extraordinary to Madrid from 1869 to 1877 and ambassador to Istanbul from 1877 to 1880.

In the course of two expeditions (1845–47 and 1849–51, the second with H. Rassam), Layard excavated the ruins of two Assyrian capitals—Calah and Nineveh—and conducted archaeological excavations in Babylon, Borsippa, Nippur, and other ancient cities. Five palaces dating from the ninth to seventh centuries B.C. were discovered in Calah. A palace of the seventh century B.C. with King Ashurbanipal’s library (about 20,000 clay tablets) was found in Nineveh.

WORKS

Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. London, 1853.

REFERENCE

Ceram, C. Bogi, grobnitsi, uchenye. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from German.)
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These colossal stone gateway figures, iconic symbols of the Assyrian empire, were discovered by the English archaeologist Austen Henry Layard in the middle of the 19th century, before being covered up again and re-excavated by Iraqi archaeologists about 15 years ago.
They included the relief excavated at Nimrud by Sir Austen Henry Layard, and then rediscovered at Canford School in Dorset, England; it sold at Christie's for a record-breaking [pounds]7.
The line of scholars investigating the AST begins with Austen Henry Layard who introduced the notion of the 'tree of life' and maintained that the AST was the tree from the Garden of Eden.
He begins with the lives of the two Victorians chiefly responsible for the epic's recovery: Smith, who chanced upon the epic inscribed upon twelve broken tablets mixed in among a hundred thousand other tablet fragments stashed in the British Museum; and the Assyrian-born archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam, who, with his British patron Henry Layard, had shipped them to London a quarter century earlier, after discovering them at Nineveh--an accomplishment for which Rassam was long deprived of due credit.
Austen Henry Layard unearthed a trove of clay tablets full of strange wedge-shaped markings.
Kinglake, Sir Frederic Burton, Sir Henry Layard, Henry James, Sir Alfred Lyall, and Robert Browning, and this chapter is followed by one entirely dedicated to Wilfrid Blunt.
Adkins explores his relationships with Irish scholar Edward Hincks, Austen Henry Layard, who excavated Nineveh, and their roles in deciphering cuneiform.
Strangely, the BBC1 commentators ignored it, though 15 minutes into the game you half expected Sir Henry Layard to emerge from its depths bearing pots of Assyrian pots.
The second sack of Nineveh is argued to have occurred in 1847, when Austen Henry Layard arrived at the site and stripped it of many of the `best' reliefs, for shipment to England and eventual placement in the British Museum.
Esarhaddon never completed his palace and the slabs, when Sir Henry Layard found them, were stacked helter skelter.
In the years of the present volume, 1853-1855, as in the past, he still regularly supervises Urania Cottage for Miss Burdett Courts; throws himself into amateur theatricals to benefit writers--managing, directing, and acting--; involves himself in public affairs (at this point working with Austin Henry Layard in behalf of administrative reform, advocating measures for improved sanitation and water, working to reform the charter of the Royal Literary Fund, and so on and on).
Henry Layard, then attached to the British embassy in Constantinople, illustrates the problems of mission and unity when writing to the Morning Chronicle (London), September 5,1843, concerning the American Presbyterians: "Had the Church of England cooperated with them as Protestant Christians, instead of opposing them as heretical enemies, the disasters which we have described would not have occurred; as it is, one of the most ancient and most interesting sects in the world .