Ephthalites

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Ephthalites

 

(White Huns), an association of tribes in the fifth and sixth centuries that formed a state in what is now Middle Asia, Afghanistan, northwestern India, and part of eastern Turkestan.

The best-substantiated theory of the Ephthalites’ origin is that they belonged to the eastern Iranian tribes, although they may have included other ethnic groups as well. A number of researchers contend that the Ephthalites’ principal territories were To-kharistan and eastern Afghanistan. The nucleus of the Ephthalite association apparently comprised warlike nomadic tribes that came under the influence of a settled urban culture.

Beginning in the early fifth century the Ephthalites warred against the Sassanids, who were forced to pay them a tribute. In 460 they began a series of campaigns in the western part of northern India. The Ephthalite association disintegrated under attacks by Indian, Sassanid, and Turkic rulers that took place in India in the 530’s and in Middle Asia and Afghanistan in the 560’s.

References in periodicals archive ?
Their topics include Alkhan and Hephthalite coinage, the last Bactrian kings, copper coinage and the Sasanian monetary heritage, the Chionite and Kidarite periods as seen from Samarkand, new data for a tentative historical reassessment of late historic cultural landscape in Swat, archaeological and art historical evidence from North-West Pakistan for the Shahi period, and archaeological traces of early Turks in Transoxiana.
Regional interaction in Central Asia and Northwest India in the Kidarite and Hephthalite periods.
On the other hand, if it were true that the Hephthalites or Huna or one of their associated tribes had been based also in the Kailash region (cf.
the Western Turks had moved into the areas west of the Altai and north of the Tienshan and further west into Western Turkestan and into Afghanistan, where they replaced the Hephthalites, while the Eastern Turks mainly settled in present-day Mongolia and areas further to the south and east.
reveals the treasures of Afrasiyab--element (5)--all of which reference, in Czegledy's hypothesis, Bahrain Cobin's Mihranid homeland of Padashkhwar and the extensive wealth he gained through his victories against the Hephthalite Turks and his conquests beyond the Oxus (in particular Peykand, a settlement associated with the "brazen fortress" of Afrasiyab).
Muslim to defeat the Hephthalite rebel Nezak Tarkhan in the year 91 of the Hijra (710 A.
437), Kidarite (mid-fifth century), Hephthalite (early--mid-sixth century), and Turk rule.
The Great Wall of Gorgan and its associated forts provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire, which, in its heyday, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontiers, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks.
199) A great surge in Sasanian "commerce" with China seems to date to the period of the fifth and sixth centuries, when Sasanian relations with the Hephthalites encouraged commerce by sending Sasanian money into Central Eurasia, resulting in increased numbers of Sasanian coins in China.
Since the 2nd millennium BC, regions now inhabited by Pashtoons have seen invasions and migrations, including by Indo-Iranians, Iranian peoples, Indo-Aryans, Medes, Persians, Mauryas, Scythians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, he added.
and was later used by the Kushans, Hephthalites, Western Turks, and other peoples.
Chapter 4, "The Age of Attila the Hun," discusses the Huns in Europe, the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, the early Germanic kingdoms, the Sasanids, the Hephthalites, the fall of the Han Chinese, the rise of Jin and Toba Wei, Puyo and Koguryo, and Japan.