Heraclius(redirected from Herakleios)
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Heraclius(hĕrəklī`əs, hĭrăk`lēəs), c.575–641, Byzantine emperor (610–41). The son of a governor of Africa, he succeeded the tyrant Phocas, whom he deposed and had executed. In the early years of his reign Avars and Bulgars threatened, attacking even Constantinople, and the Persians conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In three costly campaigns (622–28) Heraclius recovered the provinces from the Persians, but they fell (629–42) to the Muslim Arabs. He sought to reconcile the Monophysites with the Orthodox Church; this attempt led to the compromise of MonotheletismMonotheletism
[Gr.,=one will], 7th-century opinion condemned as heretical by the Third Council of Constantinople in 680 (see Constantinople, Third Council of).
..... Click the link for more information. , which was rejected by both sides. Heraclius began the reorganization of the empire into military provinces (themes). He was succeeded briefly by his son Constantine III and then by his grandson Constans IIConstans II
(Constans Pogonatus), 630–68, Byzantine emperor (641–68), son and successor of Constantine III and grandson of Heraclius. Early in his reign Armenia and Asia Minor were invaded by the Muslims, who challenged Byzantine supremacy at sea, took Cyprus, and
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Born 575 in Cappadocia; died Feb. 11, 641, in Constantinople. Byzantine emperor from 610.
Heraclius seized power during a period of profound internal and external political crisis in the Byzantine Empire. He temporarily succeeded in strengthening the empire’s position: in 626 an invasion of Constantinople by the Avars and Slavs was repulsed; in 627–28 the Persians were defeated, and the lands they had conquered in Asia and Egypt were returned. In the succeeding years of Heraclius’ rule, however, these eastern provinces were conquered by the Arabs. Many Byzantine scholars connect major military and administrative reforms with Heraclius’ name, including the creation of the theme system.