Parrotfish eventually became the primary grazers on reefs in the region, but these herbivores
are popular catches for fisheries.
This group, which includes early terrestrial herbivores
and large top predators, ultimately evolved into modern living mammals.
To see what pre-historic animals were eating, Willerslev and his colleagues analyzed plant DNA from the guts or fossilized feces of eight large herbivores
that lived between 55,000 and 21,000 years ago: four woolly mammoths, two woolly rhinoceroses, a bison and a horse.
Due to the short geological history of the Baltic Sea, prominent macrograzers are absent and predominant herbivores
are small crustaceans such as isopods and gammarid amphipods.
It is worth noting that the experimental plants were collected from the wild and likely experienced damage by Neochetina and other herbivores
before being used in these experiments.
There's consistent evidence that large predators help keep populations of large herbivores
in check, with positive effects on ecosystem health.
Foraging by large herbivores
can cause substantial damage to coniferous forests including direct destruction of trees, especially in monocultures and young stands (Sjoberg and Danell 2001, Edenius et al.
IBERS is organising the conference - the Eighth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores
- jointly with Bangor University, through their established partnership the Centre for Integrated Research in the Rural Environment.
Morrison explains, 'our knowledge of the evolutionary adaptations of Australia's native herbivores
to their environment has been compromised until now, because we have had virtually no understanding of their gut microbiomes and the genetic potential supporting their nutrition and well being.
The decline in herbivores
had knock-on effects for other parts of the food chain.
2000), suggesting considerable tolerance of herbivores
and compensatory growth.
It shows some physical characteristics of bats that are sanguivores, carnivores, and herbivores