Rudolf Hermann Lotze

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Lotze, Rudolf Hermann


Born May 21, 1817, in Bautzen; died July 1, 1881, in Berlin. German philosopher, physician, and natural scientist.

Lotze was a professor of philosophy at the universities of Leipzig (from 1842), Göttingen (1844-81), and Berlin (1881). In his Medical Psychology (1852) and other specialized works on medicine and physiology, he defended certain tenets of mechanistic materialism, while criticizing vitalism. In his philosophical works, including Mikrokosmus (vols. 1-3, 1856-64; Russian translation, parts 1-3, 1866-67) and A System of Philosophy (1874-79), he developed ideas of objective idealism close to Leibnizian monadism. Lotze introduced the teleological concept of standards of meaning as a specific characteristic of the content of thought in cognition theory and logic; analogously, he introduced the concept of value in ethics.


Geschichte der Ästhetik in Deutschland. Munich, 1868.
Logik. Leipzig, 1912.
In Russian translation:
Osnovaniia prakticheskoi filosofii. St. Petersburg, 1882.
Osnovaniia psikhologii. St. Petersburg, 1884.


Mirtov, D. P. Uchenie Lome o dukhe chelovecheskom i dukhe absoliutnom. St. Petersburg, 1914.
Ambrosi, L. E. Lotze e la sua filosofia. Rome, 1912.
Wentscher, M. Lotze. Heidelberg, 1913.
Thomas, E. Lotze’s Theory of Reality. London, 1921.
References in periodicals archive ?
Next, Gottfried Gabriel explores what Frege's philosophy took from Hermann Lotze, and, generally, what his work shared with the neo-Kantian tradition.
His familiar discussion of the dynamics of feeling is shown as derivative and also negative in its attack on the scope of feeling in music, and a substantial quotation from a contemporary critic, Hermann Lotze, as well as a subsequent treatment of the field by Moritz Lazarus, are presented as offering more sensitive approaches to the issues by writers within Hanslick's own period.