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Ferdinand,1721–92, Prussian field marshal, a prince of the house of Brunswick, known as Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick. He served King Frederick II of Prussia brilliantly in the Seven Years WarSeven Years War,
1756–63, worldwide war fought in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other.
..... Click the link for more information. , notably by his victories at Krefeld (1758) and Minden (1759).
Ferdinand,1793–1875, emperor of Austria (1835–48), son and successor of Emperor Francis I (who also, as Francis II, had been the last Holy Roman emperor). A well-meaning monarch in his lucid moments, he was subject to fits of insanity. A council of state that included Metternich governed in his name. After revolution broke out in Vienna in 1848 the emperor promulgated (April) a constitution, but it failed to satisfy the revolutionists. He fled from Vienna in May and—after the recapture of Vienna by Windischgrätz—was persuaded by Felix zu SchwarzenbergSchwarzenberg, Felix, Fürst zu
, 1800–1852, Austrian premier; nephew of Karl Philipp zu Schwarzenberg. A soldier and diplomat, he was named (Nov., 1848) premier at the urging of his brother-in-law, Prince Windischgrätz, who had crushed the revolutions of 1848 in
..... Click the link for more information. to abdicate (Dec. 2, 1848) in favor of his nephew, Francis Joseph.
Ferdinand,1861–1948, czar of Bulgaria (1908–18), after being ruling prince (1887–1908). A grandnephew of Ernest I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was chosen prince of Bulgaria after the enforced abdication of Prince AlexanderAlexander
(Alexander of Battenberg), 1857–93, prince of Bulgaria (1879–86); second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse-Darmstadt and nephew of Alexander II of Russia.
..... Click the link for more information. . He was, however, opposed by Russia, and it was not until 1896 that he was recognized by the European powers. In 1908, taking advantage of the Young Turk revolution in Constantinople and the annexation of nominally Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria, Ferdinand proclaimed the full independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire and proclaimed himself czar. Having then gained Russia's favor, Ferdinand concluded (1912) an alliance with Serbia, later joined by Greece and Montenegro. The four allies, attacking the Ottomans, were victorious in the first of the Balkan WarsBalkan Wars,
1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense.
..... Click the link for more information. (1912–13), but in the second Balkan War (1913) Bulgaria suffered a humiliating defeat by Serbia, Greece, Romania, and the Ottomans. In the hope of recovering most of Macedonia, lost to Serbia and Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), Ferdinand in 1915 joined the Central Powers in World War I. In 1917 the tide of war turned against Bulgaria, and in 1918, Ferdinand was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Boris III. Ferdinand left Bulgaria to spend most of the rest of his life at Coburg, Germany.
Ferdinand,1865–1927, king of Romania (1914–27), nephew of Carol ICarol I,
1839–1914, prince (1866–81) and first king (1881–1914) of Romania, of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He is also called Charles I. A Prussian officer, he was elected to succeed the deposed Alexander John Cuza as prince of Romania.
..... Click the link for more information. . The second son of the Prussian prince, Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, he was designated successor to the heirless Carol I in 1880. In 1893 he married MarieMarie
, 1875–1938, queen of Romania, consort of Ferdinand. The daughter of Alfred, duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she was the granddaughter of Czar Alexander II of Russia and of Queen Victoria of England.
..... Click the link for more information. , daughter of Alfred, duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (and granddaughter of Queen Victoria and Czar Alexander II.) Although related to the German imperial family, Ferdinand took Romania (1916) into World War I on the Allied side, and in 1922 he was crowned king of the enlarged Romania established by the peace treaties. Ferdinand annexed (1918) BessarabiaBessarabia
, historic region, c.17,600 sq mi (45,600 sq km), largely in Moldova and Ukraine. It is bounded by the Dniester River on the north and east, the Prut on the west, and the Danube and the Black Sea on the south.
..... Click the link for more information. from Russia and in 1919 ordered the Romanian military intervention in Hungary that broke up the Communist government of Béla KunKun, Béla
, 1886–1937, Hungarian Communist. A prisoner of war in Russia after 1915, he embraced Bolshevism. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 he was sent to Hungary as a propagandist.
..... Click the link for more information. . During his reign, universal male suffrage and agrarian reforms were introduced. Ferdinand's son, Carol (see Carol IICarol II,
1893–1953, king of Romania, son of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. While crown prince, he contracted a morganatic marriage with Zizi Labrino but divorced her to marry (1921) Princess Helen of Greece.
..... Click the link for more information. ), renounced his succession in 1925, and Carol's son MichaelMichael,
1921–, king of Romania (1927–30, 1940–47). His father, Prince Carol (later Carol II), renounced his right of succession in 1925, and young Michael ascended the throne under a regency on the death of Ferdinand.
..... Click the link for more information. succeeded in 1927.
the name of several rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Austrian monarchy.
Ferdinand I. Born Mar. 10, 1503, in Alcalá de Henares, Spain; died July 25, 1564, in Vienna. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1556; archduke of Austria; member of the Hapsburg dynasty.
Ferdinand I was the younger brother of Emperor Charles V, by whom he was given dominion over Austrian lands in accordance with treaties concluded in 1521 and 1522. He also held the vicegerency of Germany in his brother’s absence. In addition, he was chosen king of Bohemia and Hungary; but in Hungary, Ferdinand I was able to establish his rule in only a part of the monarchy, after a protracted struggle with the voevoda of Transylvania, J. Zápolya, and the forces of the Ottoman Empire, which had advanced as far as Vienna in 1529. In his Austrian domain he carried out a series of reforms intended to strengthen the power of the central administration. In 1556 Ferdinand I assumed the imperial throne after the abdication of Charles V. He was crowned in 1558.
Ferdinand II. Born July 9, 1578, in Graz; died Feb. 15, 1637, in Vienna. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1619; archduke of Austria.
Ferdinand II assumed dominion over Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola in 1590. Educated by the Jesuits, he became a fanatic champion of the Counter-Reformation—the policies of which he pressed on his domain, particularly in 1598 and 1599—and of reactionary absolutism on the Spanish model. His appointment as Emperor Matthias’ successor in Bohemia (1617) and in Hungary (1618) provoked the Bohemian Revolt of 1618–20 and Gábor Bethlen’s anti-Hapsburg campaign of 1619–26. In 1619 and 1620 the rebels declared that Ferdinand II had been deprived of his Bohemian and Hungarian thrones, respectively. Nevertheless, the successes of the Catholic Hapsburg camp during the initial period of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) allowed Ferdinand II to subdue all of Bohemia, installing an occupation regime there, and to return the Hungarian throne to the Hapsburgs. After suppressing the Peasant War of 1626 in Upper Austria, he proclaimed the Edict of Restitution over the whole empire in 1629.
Ferdinand II. Born July 13, 1608, in Graz; died Apr. 2, 1657, in Vienna. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1637; archduke of Austria; king of Bohemia and part of Hungary.
After the death of A. Wallenstein in 1634, Ferdinand III assumed command of the imperial forces and held it until his accession to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) was brought to a conclusion during his reign.