The medical and health practitioners of the new millennium are greatly indebted to the efforts made by the pioneers like Herophilus
(Alexandr2:34 PMia, Egypt), (1) Alcmaeon (500 B.
Aristotle's treatise on the soul is duly acknowledged, but the author misses useful and instructive opportunities to consider the Hippocratics and such ancient anatomists as Herophilus
Aristotle believed it to be the heart; Herophilus
of Chalcedon contended it was the brain (as proof, the anatomist and physician provided the primordial medical world with descriptions of the brain, spinal cord and nerves).
52] Some of the scholars that these measures enticed to the Mouseion were Strabo, Zenodotus, Aristophanes, Eratosthenes, Herophilus
, and Euclid.
300 BCE: Herophilus
of Chalcedon, one of the first Greek anatomists to publicly dissect human cadavers, determines arteries are thicker than veins and carry blood.
Fusillo emphasizes the influence of Herophilus
of Alexandria, but as I will explain below, this is insufficient.
At the onset of the Hellenistic era (late 4th century BC), the cardiocentric consensus (heart as control centre) gradually receded, as influential Alexandrians such as Herophilus
and Erasistratus brought evidence of an encephalocentric hegemonikon.
of Alexandria and Erasistratus, his student, are the first to rely on dissection, in 300 BC.
In his book On eyes Herophilus
prescribes an eye ointment for blindness which contained honey, crocodile dung, hyena bile and vitriolic copper (Von Staden 1994:424).
2) Not allowed to dissect human bodies, Galen, who is considered the father of experimental physiology, derived his theories from observations of animals and, as Laqueur notes, from the dissections of Herophilus
, a third century B.
was an anatomist at the library; his research led him to chart the purpose and function of all bodily organs, including the brain and nervous system.
She was trained by the master physician Herophilus
and was very capable.