Hesiod


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Hesiod

(hē`sēəd, hĕs`–), fl. 8th cent.? B.C., Greek poet. He is thought to have lived later than Homer, but there is no absolute certainty about the dates of his life. Hesiod portrays himself as a Boeotian farmer. Little is known of his life, however, except for the few scant references he makes to his family's origin and to a quarrel over property with his brother. His most famous poem, the didactic Works and Days, is an epic of Greek rural life, filled with caustic advice for his brother and maxims for farmers to pursue. The "days" are days lucky or unlucky for particular tasks. Works and Days discourses on the mythic "five races" (i.e., the five ages) of humans; the Golden Age, ruled by Kronos, a period of serenity, peace, and eternal spring; the Silver Age, ruled by Zeus, less happy, but with luxury prevailing; the Bronze Age, a period of strife; the Heroic Age of the Trojan War; and the Iron Age, the present, when justice and piety had vanished. Hesiod's systemization, especially the idealized Golden Age, became deeply entrenched in the Western imagination and was expanded upon by Ovid. Also ascribed to him are the Theogony, a genealogy of the gods, and the first 56 lines of The Shield of Heracles. He gave his name to the Hesiodic school of poets, rivals of the Homeric school. Homer and Hesiod codified and preserved the myths of many of the Greek gods of the classical pantheon.

Bibliography

See translations by Lattimore (1959, 1991), and R. Lamberton, Hesiod (1988).

Hesiod

 

Dates of birth and death unknown. Ancient Greek poet of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.

Hesiod’s didactic narrative poems Works and Days and Theogony (Genealogy of the Gods) have been preserved intact. They reflect the view of life held by the Greeks at the time when class society was taking form. In Works and Days, the social attitudes of working farmers, oppressed by the clan aristocracy, are voiced. This is the source of the poem’s denunciation of social inequality, its elevation of justice to the status of highest ethical principle, and the celebration of labor as the basis of life. Along with practical advice on agricultural matters, expressing the life experience and superstitions of rural people, the work contains vivid descriptions of nature, apt proverbs, and parables. The Theogony is a forerunner of ancient Greek philosophy, the first attempt by the Greeks at a systematization not only of the genealogy of the gods but of the origin of the world. The poem concludes with a genealogy of Greek heroines, setting the pattern for the genealogical trend in ancient Greek literature.

WORKS

Hesiodi carmina. Edited by A. Rzach. Leipzig, 1913.
Théogonia. Text verified and translated by P. Mason. Paris, 1951.
Theogony. Edited by M. L. West. Oxford, 1966.
Fragmenta Hesiodea. Edited by R. Merkelbach and M. L. West. Oxford, 1967.
In Russian translation:
In Ellinskie poety v perevodakh V. V. Veresaeva. Moscow, 1963.

REFERENCES

Trencsényi-Waldapfel, I. Gomer i Gesiod. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from Hungarian.)
Radtsig, S. I. Istoriia drevnegrecheskoi literatury, 2nd ed. [Moscow] 1959.
Burn, A. R. The World of Hesiod. London, 1936.
Solmsen, F. Hesiod and Aeschylus. [New York] 1949.
Hésiode et son influence. Geneva-Paris, 1960.

T. V. POPOVA

Hesiod

8th century bc, Greek poet and the earliest author of didactic verse. His two complete extant works are the Works and Days, dealing with the agricultural seasons, and the Theogony, concerning the origin of the world and the genealogies of the gods

Hesiod

(project)
The name server of the Athena project.

References in periodicals archive ?
References from the author and from editor Downing include ones to Emerson, Goethe, Rousseau, Sophocles, Spenser, Malory, Blavatsky, Wordsworth, Freud, Dryden, Sidney, Poe, Flaubert, Ovid, Keats, Yeats, Coleridge, Dante, Aquinas, Thucydides, Pindar, Aeschylus, Milton, Bacon, Berkeley, Langland, Whitman, Shelley, Donne, Byron, Pascal, Proust, Virgil, Erasmus, Wagner, Maeterlinck, Haldane, Hesiod, Hegel, Hitler, Hazlitt, Aristotle, Shakespeare, Arthur Conan Doyle, Oscar Wilde, William Cowper, Bertrand Russell, George Moore, Anatole France, T.
The very few literary texts were limited to Homer, Isocrates, Aesop, and the Greek Anthology, as well as parts of Hesiod, Theocritus, Euripides, and Callimachus.
attacks the view of the gods in Homer and Hesiod, who were, in effect, the Bible of the Greeks, criticizing them for attributing to the gods "everthing that is a shame and re-preach among men, stealing and committing adultery and deceiving each other," and remarks that if horses had hands and were able to draw with them, their gods would take the form of horses, and that the Ethiopians say that their gods are snub-nosed and black.
I had no models except that I knew microscopically a lot of prose--I knew Beckett's books backwards and forwards--and was very influenced by my study of Greek culture, by the Iliad, the Odyssey, Hesiod, Diogenes.
The stated aims of illustrating 'the different methodological approaches currently being practised' and providing 'an introduction to the state of the art' are achieved, but not every chapter can be unreservedly recommended to those who do not already have considerable familiarity with the history of the Greek city between Hesiod and Demosthenes--whose names, though less resonant than those of Homer and Alexander, would give a better indication of the real scope of the volume.
Chapter four elaborates on the idea that the universe itself is the source of inspired music, and includes references to the Celts, Christian Celts, Caedmon, Hesiod, Barbara Tedlock, the Amazonian peoples, and Shakespeare's Henry VIII, before coming to the significance of Elvish singing to Frodo (58), and another digression to the Cyclades, then considering the importance of music in the Odyssey (61-65).
from the reader, but in addition and en passant Patterson mauls Hesiod (and includes and misuses a bad translation of a passage from the Works and Days, p.
It is often said that in ancient Chinese literature there are no divisions between religion and politics and moral reflection, but cannot the same be said of ancient Greek literature in Homer or Hesiod, or the earliest Hebrew texts of the Bible?
The association between Kumarbi and grain may gain additional support from the description of Kumarbi's Greek counterpart Kronos, who, according to Hesiod (Theogony, II.
In his introduction Statkiewicz defines this notion as follows: 'I call this dialogue "rhapsodic", in reference to the profession, or rather vocation, of the rhapsode-engaged, like the Ion but also Homer and Hesiod and even Plato himself, in a "chain" of magnetic, enthused "rings" transmitting voices to one another--and in reference to the very etymology of the word, the verb rhaptein (to stitch together, even apparently heterogeneous elements such as rigor and play, image and simulacrum, identity and difference, philosophy and poetry), as well as the noun rhabdos (a wand born by the rhapsoidos), marking the rhythm of his performance' (3).
Her research interests include archaic Greek poetry, especially Homer and Hesiod, comparative study of Homer and the Tale of the Heike, and Homer's reception in antiquity.
A recent study (McDermott, "Metal Face") also demonstrates the author's indebtedness, in the same thematic context, to the Golden-Age motif originated by Hesiod in his Works and Days and featured as well in Virgil's Geargics and fourth Eclogue.