Hesiod

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Hesiod

(hē`sēəd, hĕs`–), fl. 8th cent.? B.C., Greek poet. He is thought to have lived later than Homer, but there is no absolute certainty about the dates of his life. Hesiod portrays himself as a Boeotian farmer. Little is known of his life, however, except for the few scant references he makes to his family's origin and to a quarrel over property with his brother. His most famous poem, the didactic Works and Days, is an epic of Greek rural life, filled with caustic advice for his brother and maxims for farmers to pursue. The "days" are days lucky or unlucky for particular tasks. Works and Days discourses on the mythic "five races" (i.e., the five ages) of humans; the Golden Age, ruled by Kronos, a period of serenity, peace, and eternal spring; the Silver Age, ruled by Zeus, less happy, but with luxury prevailing; the Bronze Age, a period of strife; the Heroic Age of the Trojan War; and the Iron Age, the present, when justice and piety had vanished. Hesiod's systemization, especially the idealized Golden Age, became deeply entrenched in the Western imagination and was expanded upon by Ovid. Also ascribed to him are the Theogony, a genealogy of the gods, and the first 56 lines of The Shield of Heracles. He gave his name to the Hesiodic school of poets, rivals of the Homeric school. Homer and Hesiod codified and preserved the myths of many of the Greek gods of the classical pantheon.

Bibliography

See translations by Lattimore (1959, 1991), and R. Lamberton, Hesiod (1988).

Hesiod

 

Dates of birth and death unknown. Ancient Greek poet of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.

Hesiod’s didactic narrative poems Works and Days and Theogony (Genealogy of the Gods) have been preserved intact. They reflect the view of life held by the Greeks at the time when class society was taking form. In Works and Days, the social attitudes of working farmers, oppressed by the clan aristocracy, are voiced. This is the source of the poem’s denunciation of social inequality, its elevation of justice to the status of highest ethical principle, and the celebration of labor as the basis of life. Along with practical advice on agricultural matters, expressing the life experience and superstitions of rural people, the work contains vivid descriptions of nature, apt proverbs, and parables. The Theogony is a forerunner of ancient Greek philosophy, the first attempt by the Greeks at a systematization not only of the genealogy of the gods but of the origin of the world. The poem concludes with a genealogy of Greek heroines, setting the pattern for the genealogical trend in ancient Greek literature.

WORKS

Hesiodi carmina. Edited by A. Rzach. Leipzig, 1913.
Théogonia. Text verified and translated by P. Mason. Paris, 1951.
Theogony. Edited by M. L. West. Oxford, 1966.
Fragmenta Hesiodea. Edited by R. Merkelbach and M. L. West. Oxford, 1967.
In Russian translation:
In Ellinskie poety v perevodakh V. V. Veresaeva. Moscow, 1963.

REFERENCES

Trencsényi-Waldapfel, I. Gomer i Gesiod. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from Hungarian.)
Radtsig, S. I. Istoriia drevnegrecheskoi literatury, 2nd ed. [Moscow] 1959.
Burn, A. R. The World of Hesiod. London, 1936.
Solmsen, F. Hesiod and Aeschylus. [New York] 1949.
Hésiode et son influence. Geneva-Paris, 1960.

T. V. POPOVA

Hesiod

8th century bc, Greek poet and the earliest author of didactic verse. His two complete extant works are the Works and Days, dealing with the agricultural seasons, and the Theogony, concerning the origin of the world and the genealogies of the gods

Hesiod

(project)
The name server of the Athena project.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lo que sugiere fuertemente todo esto, y es algo que los especialistas no han logrado reconocer, es que no solo se confunden en Homero las nociones fisicas y figurativas de "inspiracion", es decir, que no son diferenciadas por el poeta de manera consciente, sino que la poesia misma debe haber sido vista por Homero y Hesiodo como un don divino--de acuerdo a la voluntad de los dioses.
Entretanto, no hay duda de que Homero y Hesiodo tuvieron que recolectar y seleccionar de un vasto repertorio de historias, incluyendo numerosas versiones foraneas en circulacion, y es en este sentido, al menos, que ellos fueron (o parecen haber sido) "creadores" conscientes.
Y, por tanto, pareceria que Homero y Hesiodo podrian entender que los versos son "respirados" en su thumos o phren por la Musa (o Musas) por medio de una substancia material.
De hecho, algunos especialistas sostienen que el aoidos se ve a si mismo como el portavoz "inconsciente" de las Musas (51), pese al hecho de que tanto Homero como Hesiodo parecen sugerir que es necesaria una techne o habilidad, ademas de una relacion privilegiada con la Musa.
Hesiodo tambien las menciona en numerosas ocasiones en la Teogonia y los Trabajos y dias (53), y sostiene que las Musas (nueve en total) son las hijas de Zeus y Mnemosyne o la Memoria (cf.
La musa, por tanto, es alguien que conecta la "mente" con el pasado, el presente y el futuro, algo explicitamente afirmado por el mismo Hesiodo (cf.
Antes de examinar la nocion de poeta en Homero y Hesiodo y su relacion con la(s) Musa(s) en mas detalle, permitanme afirmar que asumo como axiomatico que los poetas orales estaban entrenados en una ingeniosa tecnica mnemonica y composicional basada en la palabra ritmica y formulas (58).
Como vimos, tanto Homero como Hesiodo trazan un paralelo entre el poeta y el mantis o vidente y, por extension, yo sostendria (contra Murray) que ambos estaban en un estado de posesion extatica, es decir, se sentian bajo el poder de las Musas y Apolo.
No hay aqui, ni en ninguna otra parte en Homero y Hesiodo, ninguna referencia acerca de como Demodoco podria haber aprendido el arte del canto desde una perspectiva tecnica (por ejemplo, inicialmente perteneciente a un gremio exclusivo que se especializase en tecnicas de la memoria).
1-115), Hesiodo relata en cierto detalle la experiencia de su encuentro con las Musas.
Un dia, mientras Hesiodo pastoreaba a sus ovejas bajo (hypo) la montana sagrada, las Musas le ensenaron (edidaxan) un bello canto (ibid.
Hesiodo relata luego el origen y la funcion de las Musas mismas (cf.