Hezbollah

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Hezbollah

[Arab., = Party of God], Lebanese Shiite political party and militia. Founded in 1982 with Iranian help to oppose Israeli forces occupying S Lebanon, Hezbollah launched guerrilla attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli forces (which were a factor in Israel's withdrawal in 2000), and mounted terror attacks on other targets inside and outside Lebanon, including the 1983 bombing of a U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut. With strong support among religious, comparatively poor Shiites in S Lebanon the Biqa (Bekaa) valley, and Beirut's southern suburbs, and underwritten financially by Iran and individual Shiites, Hezbollah established a Shiite social-services network, including schools, hospitals, and clinics, and emerged as a major Lebanese political force; it has been led since 1992 by Hassan Nasrallah, a charismatic Shiite cleric. Supported militarily by Iran and Syria, Hezbollah's fighters used the years after Israel's withdrawal to retrain and rearm, acquiring large numbers of missiles and sophisticated equipment.

Politically part of the pro-Syrian camp in Lebanon, the party nonetheless became part of the largely anti-Syrian government established in 2005, and resisted the government's and the United Nations' call that it disarm. In 2006 a cross-border Hezbollah attack on Israeli soldiers, in which two Israelis were captured, sparked warfare (July–August) between Hezbollah militia and Israeli forces in which Hezbollah launched hundreds of missiles at Israel (many at civilian targets) and maintained a stubborn resistance against the Israeli forces that invaded S Lebanon.

Hezbollah emerged from the fighting, which it regarded as a victory, determined to claim a larger political voice in the Lebanese government, and ulitmately forced (2008) the goverment to give it and its allies veto power in the cabinet. In the 2009 elections its coalition placed second, with 45% of the vote, and subsequently again served in a national unity government. Denouncing a joint UN-Lebanon investigation into Prime Minister Rafik HaririHariri, Rafik or Rafiq
, 1944–2005, Lebanese tycoon and political leader, b. Sidon. The son of a poor Sunni Muslim farmer, he moved to Saudi Arabia in 1965.
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's assassination, which ultimately indicted four Hezbollah members, the party and its allies withdrew from the government in 2011; they were part of a new government formed in July. Hezbollah has provided training and other support, including several thousand fighters, to Syrian government forces in the Syrian civil war.

Bibliography

See study by T. Cambanis (2011).

References in periodicals archive ?
Al igual que en Venezuela, en Argentina se ha dado a conocer poco a poco la conspiracion entre el gobierno irani y los grupos de Hezbolah de America Latina en los anos 80 y 90 que se vieron reflejados en los ataques a la AMIA (Centro Comunitario Judeo Argentino) y en la embajada de Israel en este pais en los anos de 1992 y 1994, pero estos ataques xenofobicos se han ido arraigando desde los anos 30.
Bastante turbia es la historia del Hezbolah, que nada tiene que ver con las organizaciones homonimas libanesa e irani.
Una vez constituido, el Hezbolah declaro que Turquia era Dar ul harp: "region descreida abierta para la guerra".
Aunque de obediencia sunita, el Hezbolah logro establecer contactos en Ir n.
El Hezbolah, movimiento islamico libanes, de obediencia chiita, que desde 1984 hostigo sin descanso a las fuerzas armadas israelies y a sus aliados cristianos del Ejercito de Libano del Sur, reivindica como suya esa primera victoria arabe sobre Israel.
En el camino hay piedras amontonadas por el Hezbolah.
Enfrente hay decenas de puestos en los que se venden camisetas, gorras, banderas, libros, revistas y casetes del Hezbolah.
El estrepitoso derrumbe del ESL fue, precisamente, lo que precipito la retirada de los israelies, y permitio al Hezbolah ocupar todo el sur de Libano, dejando inoperantes a las tropas de la ONU.
Integrado por combatientes islamitas libaneses, de obediencia chiita, apoyado material y economicamente por Iran y mas o menos controlado por Siria, el Hezbolah se enfrento violentamente a las fuerzas israelies y sus aliados del ESL durante dos decadas y es considerado por Israel como uno de sus peores enemigos.
En la euforia, el jeque Hasan Nasralah, secretario general del Hezbolah, el 26 de mayo exhorto a los palestinos a que abandonen las negociaciones con Israel y hagan valer sus derechos mediante "la resistencia y la insurreccion".
Miles de jovenes salieron del campus universitario para lanzarse a las calles de la capital, donde se enfrentaron con la policia y sobre todo con los Basidjis, milicias islamicas aun mas radicales que los Anzar Hezbolah.
Estas fuerzas, que ocupan dentro de Libano una franja territorial de 10 kilometros de ancho (que va del mar Mediterraneo hasta el Monte Hermon), se enfrentan esporadicamente con unos 700 combatientes del Hezbolah, movimiento islamita chiita armado por Iran pero controlado por Siria.