Higgs boson

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Higgs boson:

see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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.

Higgs boson

An elementary scalar particle in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions. At present, there is no direct experimental evidence for its existence. It is closely associated with the origin of mass for all known elementary particles, as described in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory. This gives the Higgs boson distinctive properties which shape the search for it. See Electroweak interaction, Standard model

The mass of the Higgs boson is uncertain theoretically, being determined by the parameters of the scalar self-interactions. It is strongly suspected, however, that the Higgs mass is between about 114 and 200 GeV/c2 (where c is the speed of light).

The fact that the Higgs particle is closely related to the origin of mass endows it with special properties crucial in its production and detection. The illustration shows how the decay pattern of a standard-model Higgs boson depends on its mass.

Dependence of the decay probabilities of a standard-model Higgs boson on its massenlarge picture
Dependence of the decay probabilities of a standard-model Higgs boson on its mass

The first extensive searches for the Higgs boson were carried out at the Large Electron Positron Storage Ring (LEP) and Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), e+e- machines with sufficient center-of-mass energy to operate at the Z resonance. The LEP was subsequently upgraded, and there were signs that experiments at center-of-mass energies up to 208 GeV/c2 might be seeing the Higgs boson, but these were not sufficient to delay the machine's shutdown in November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) in the same tunnel.

The next particle accelerators to extend the Higgs boson search will probably be hadron colliders (proton-proton or proton-antiproton), particularly the LHC. See Elementary particle, Particle accelerator

Higgs boson

The most elementary atomic particle discovered to date at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. With 99.9% certainty, the Higgs is said to be the particle that gives all other particles mass. It is smaller than all other particles but also heavier in atomic weight. Considered the glue of the universe, the Higgs is an invisible energy field that fills space.

The Higgs Is a Type of Boson
Named after Satyendra Nath Bose, a boson is a particle that shares quantum states and behaves collectively; for example, a photon is a boson. The Higgs is a type of boson that was postulated by three scientists in the 1960s: Peter Higgs, Francois Englert and Tom Kibble, all of whom were present in Geneva in 2012 when the discovery was officially announced. See quantum state and particle accelerator.


The God Particle
Higgs is also called the "God Particle" after Leon Lederman's book, written two decades before it was finally observed. The book takes you through 2,500 years of physics with a sense of humor and an uncanny way of really teaching the subject.