Higgs boson


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Higgs boson:

see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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.

Higgs boson

An elementary scalar particle in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions. At present, there is no direct experimental evidence for its existence. It is closely associated with the origin of mass for all known elementary particles, as described in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory. This gives the Higgs boson distinctive properties which shape the search for it. See Electroweak interaction, Standard model

The mass of the Higgs boson is uncertain theoretically, being determined by the parameters of the scalar self-interactions. It is strongly suspected, however, that the Higgs mass is between about 114 and 200 GeV/c2 (where c is the speed of light).

The fact that the Higgs particle is closely related to the origin of mass endows it with special properties crucial in its production and detection. The illustration shows how the decay pattern of a standard-model Higgs boson depends on its mass.

Dependence of the decay probabilities of a standard-model Higgs boson on its massenlarge picture
Dependence of the decay probabilities of a standard-model Higgs boson on its mass

The first extensive searches for the Higgs boson were carried out at the Large Electron Positron Storage Ring (LEP) and Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), e+e- machines with sufficient center-of-mass energy to operate at the Z resonance. The LEP was subsequently upgraded, and there were signs that experiments at center-of-mass energies up to 208 GeV/c2 might be seeing the Higgs boson, but these were not sufficient to delay the machine's shutdown in November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) in the same tunnel.

The next particle accelerators to extend the Higgs boson search will probably be hadron colliders (proton-proton or proton-antiproton), particularly the LHC. See Elementary particle, Particle accelerator

Higgs boson

The most elementary atomic particle discovered to date at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. With 99.9% certainty, the Higgs is said to be the particle that gives all other particles mass. It is smaller than all other particles but also heavier in atomic weight. Considered the glue of the universe, the Higgs is an invisible energy field that fills space.

The Higgs Is a Type of Boson
Named after Satyendra Nath Bose, a boson is a particle that shares quantum states and behaves collectively; for example, a photon is a boson. The Higgs is a type of boson that was postulated by three scientists in the 1960s: Peter Higgs, Francois Englert and Tom Kibble, all of whom were present in Geneva in 2012 when the discovery was officially announced. See quantum state and particle accelerator.


The God Particle
Higgs is also called the "God Particle" after Leon Lederman's book, written two decades before it was finally observed. The book takes you through 2,500 years of physics with a sense of humor and an uncanny way of really teaching the subject.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thanks to the dual improvements, over the next three years the LHC should produce about 10 times as many Higgs bosons as the roughly 500,000 churned out by the first-generation machine (only a fraction of those Higgs were actually detected).
Besides looking for dark matter, the scientists will want to learn more about the Higgs boson, he said.
If you work it out, you get the mass of a Higgs boson that's only a bit larger than the nano-mass of a Higgs boson actually is," Singh, author of "The Simpsons and their Mathematic Secrets," said.
The 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson particle was hailed as one of the great scientific accomplishments of recent decades.
The Higgs Boson provides mass to the most basic building blocks of matter.
In the world of theoretical particle physics, the Higgs boson is considered the missing building block of the universe.
Prof Higgs shot from obscurity to fame after the Higgs boson discovery and last year shared the Nobel Prize with Belgian Francois Englert - though he said he believed theoretical physicist Professor Tom Kibble, who also worked on the Higgs boson, should have shared the prize.
The "God particle,'' known in the physics world as the Higgs boson particle, was first theorized in 1964 by Peter Higgs, who was named the winner of the Nobel Prize for physics, along with Francois Englert.
There was animated flag-waving this year as the Nobel prize in physics was shared between the UK's very own Peter Higgs, and Francois Englert from Belgium, for their groundbreaking work on the theory of the Higgs boson.
Shortly thereafter Higgs postulated that the mass-inducing field was produced by a particle that came to be known as the Higgs boson.
Britain's Peter Higgs and Francois Englert of Belgium won the Nobel Prize for physics on Tuesday for predicting the existence of the Higgs boson particle that explains how elementary matter attained the mass to form stars and planets.
British and Belgian scientists share 2013 award - Higgs boson explains how basic matter gains mass - 1964 prediction was confirmed at CERN last year Britain's Peter Higgs and Francois Englert of Belgium won the Nobel Prize for physics on Tuesday for predicting the existence of the Higgs boson particle that explains how elementary matter attained the mass to form stars and planets.