High-temperature materials

High-temperature materials

A metal or alloy which serves above about 1000°F (540°C). More specifically, the materials which operate at such temperatures consist principally of some stainless steels, superalloys, refractory metals, and certain ceramic materials. The giant class of alloys called steels usually see service below 1000°F. The most demanding applications for high-temperature materials are found in aircraft jet engines, industrial gas turbines, and nuclear reactors. However, many furnaces, ductings, and electronic and lighting devices operate at such high temperatures.

In order to perform successfully and economically at high temperatures, a material must have at least two essential characteristics: it must be strong, since increasing temperature tends to reduce strength, and it must have resistance to its environment, since oxidation and corrosion attack also increase with temperature. See Corrosion

High-temperature materials, always vital, have acquired an even greater importance because of developing crises in providing society with sufficient energy. The machinery which produces electricity or some other form of power from a heat source operates according to the basic Carnot cycle law, where the efficiency of the device depends on the difference between its highest operating temperature and its lowest temperature. Thus, the greater this difference, the more efficient is the device—a result giving great impetus to create materials that operate at very high temperatures. See Carnot cycle, Efficiency

References in periodicals archive ?
Printing and striping inks for coating high-temperature materials used in wire insulation and jacketing
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Comets formed in the frigid Kuiper belt out beyond Neptune, but analyses of the Wild 2 samples showed that comets are composed of low-temperature and high-temperature materials that must have come from completely different environments.
Sirera notes that the technology is suitable for all types of thermoplastics, including high-temperature materials like PEEK, polysulfone, and liquid-crystal polymers (LCP).
Operating like trap doors, the sliding shields bolt in between the air cannon valve and mounting flange, helping to protect workers from exposure to severe heat, gases and high-temperature materials.
Extruding complex-profile shapes in nylon or high-temperature materials requires careful screw and die design with specific drawdown ratios to meet tolerance requirements.
Embedded component technologies had their own session, with others on VOC-free materials, high-temperature materials, surface finishes, RFID, and automotive electronics.
Advances presented include glass formation abilities of certain alloys, applications of shape-memory alloys, cobalt alloys and composites, aluminum alloys, metal matrix composites and titanium alloys, with special attention to high-temperature materials such as niobium alloys and composites, Mo-Si-B alloys for ultrahigh temperature applications, and nickel-based alloys.
Alloys on basis of TiAl and Ti3Al titanium alu-minides are considered in recent years as promising high-temperature materials.
Two leading theories may account for the high-temperature materials in the comet, he notes.
EERC noted that a 30-foot-high demonstration/testing area will be located inside the building, along with a staging area for vehicle demonstration, a fuel cell testing area, a high-temperature materials lab, and other individual labs for a variety of hydrogen production technologies.
Some high-temperature materials are becoming available in production quantities, but availability will be constrained through 2006.

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