After the data has been decomposed into IMFs, the second step is to apply the

Hilbert transform to each IMF, which produces instantaneous phase (frequencies) as functions of time.

Process the decomposed EMD wavelet with

Hilbert transform, and use the method put forward in section 2 to get a 6-dimensional feature vector.

There is some focus on weighted estimates in a non-commutative and scalar setting, in the understanding of discretizations of classical operators, such as the

Hilbert transform and their role played when acting on functions defined on discrete groups.

In addition, sometimes the unexplainable negative instantaneous frequency would appear when computing instantaneous frequency by performing

Hilbert transform to the decomposition results of EMD and meanwhile the end effects would be more serious [13, 14].

The EMD components possess the Hilbert property, that is, a time-frequency distribution of these components that bears an actual physical meaning can be obtained by applying the

Hilbert transform.

IQ][n]) in (8) are fed into

Hilbert transform functions of the I and Q channels, respectively.

Hilbert transform, empirical mode decomposition and its applications to free vibration analysis.

For the Creamer (2) model, it is based on the Hamiltonian formalism under the weak wave-turbulence theory and is performed through the nonlinear transformation of the

Hilbert transform of the linear surface [12,13].

Returning to Figure 1, the

Hilbert transform block following the ADC separates the samples into I and Q streams.

Kingsbury applied the DWT in separate parallel trees; he used two wavelets that were approximately

Hilbert transform pairs (a dual tree CWT uses two real DWTs: the first DWT gives the real part of the transform while the second DWT gives the imaginary part (Selesnick et al.

A very common implementation of this technique is through using a dual drive Mach-Zehnder modulator, with the original signal applied to one drive and its

Hilbert transform to the other [10].

When an arbitrarily given signal x(t) and its

Hilbert transform y(t) combine to form an analytic signal z(t), the instantaneous amplitude and the instantaneous phase can be obtained.