Himachal Pradesh


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Himachal Pradesh

(hĭmä`chəl prədāsh`), state (2001 provisional pop. 6,077,248), 21,629 sq mi (56,019 sq km), NW India, in the W Himalayas, bordered by the Tibet region of China on the east. ShimlaShimla
, formerly Simla,
town (1991 pop. 110,360), capital of Himachal Pradesh state, NW India. It is situated on a forested ridge (c.7,100 ft/2,165 m high) in the W Himalayas. Shimla is a summer resort and a large market for potatoes; an airport is nearby.
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 is the capital. The state is covered with forested mountains, and the valleys are extensively cultivated. The forests have supplied large quantities of timber and wood products, but severe deforestation has led to a tree-planting program and the cessation of live tree-cutting. The emphasis in recent years is toward the protection of watersheds for future hydroelectric development. Potatoes, wheat, and corn are grown, as are most of India's apples, peaches, and apricots. Salt is mined and handicrafts are made. Pahari-speaking Hindus inhabit the lower hill area; peoples of Tibetan origin live in the high mountain regions.

Himachal Pradesh was formed as a union territory in 1948 by the merger of 30 former Punjabi princely states. The small state of Bilaspur was merged with it in 1954. In 1966 five more districts and parts of two others from Punjab were added to the territory. Himachal Pradesh became a state in 1971. It is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to an elected unicameral legislature and by a governor appointed by the president of India.

Himachal Pradesh

 

a state in northern India. Area, 55,600 sq km. Population, 3.6 million (1975). The administrative center is the city of Simla. The territory of Himachal Pradesh is dissected from northwest to southeast by ranges of the western Himalayas. From southwest to northeast run the Siwalik Range (700–1,000 m in elevation), the Dhaoladhar Range (4,000–5,000 m), the Great Himalayas, and the Zaskar Range, with individual peaks of 6,000–7,000 m. The upper courses of the Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Chenab rivers flow through the state. The state’s vegetation includes coniferous and broad-leaved forests.

The primary occupation of the inhabitants of Himachal Pradesh is agriculture. In the river valleys, crops of wheat, corn, barley, rice, and potatoes are cultivated. Apples, peaches, apricots, nuts, and pomegranates are also grown, and medicinal herbs and plants are gathered. Rock salt is mined. Handicrafts in the state include the processing of hides and skins and the making of woolen yarn, shawls, and fabrics. The forest industry accounts for more than one-third of the state’s income. Rosin and turpentine are produced in Nahan and Bilaspur, and cement is made in Rajban. Simla is a mountain resort.

Himachal Pradesh

a state of N India, in the W Himalayas: rises to about 6700 m (22 000 ft.) and is densely forested. Capital: Simla. Pop.: 6 077 248 (2001). Area: 55 658 sq. km (21 707 sq. miles)
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