Hinayana


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Related to Hinayana: Vajrayana

Hinayana

 

one of the two major branches of Buddhism, the other one being Mahayana Buddhism. The concept of Hinayana was introduced by the Mahayanists at the beginning of the first millennium A.D., not long after the emergence of Buddhism itself. Hinayana Buddhism comprises a number of schools, including Theravada, Sarvastivada (Vaibhashika), and Sautrantika; at present, however, the adherents of Hinayana Buddhism tend to identify it with the Theravada school, or the “teaching of the elders.” Hinayana Buddhism, as it developed and spread to the southern countries—such as Ceylon, Laos, and Thailand—became firmly established there under the name of Southern Buddhism. Among its basic texts are the Abhidharma-kosa by Vasubandhu and the Tipitaka.

Buddhism preaches individual perfection for the attainment of “deliverance,” or Nirvana; in Hinayana, the moral and intellectual development of the individual was proclaimed to be completely independent of any forces external to man, and particularly divine ones. Hinayana is distinguished by its relatively strict and at the same time negative moral principles. Its ideal is the arhat —the individual who strives unswervingly and above all toward self-perfection and who in effect cares little for the perfection of others. In the philosophical frame of reference, a related aspect of Hinayana is its denial that either the soul or god exist as independent entities and the assertion that dharmas are the only existing essences—dharmas being the specific psychophysical elements of the individual’s life activity, inseparably linked to the surrounding world. Dharmas represent the union of the subjective and the objective, the material and the spiritual, and they are in perpetual motion.

The Hinayanists regard the Buddha as a historical person who differs from others by his incomparably greater perfection but is not endowed with divine authority. He is represented as the highest ideal of human existence and as a model for others, inasmuch as every man has the potential to become a Buddha.

In theory, Hinayana Buddhism has substituted life in a monastic community, or sangha, for worship and ritual; the significance of the latter, however, has been preserved in the countries that practice Southern Buddhism, where a distinctive form of polytheism developed.

REFERENCES

Radhakrishnan, S. Indiiskaia filosofiia, vol. 1. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from English.)
Vallée Poussin, L. de Ia. Bouddhisme. Paris, 1909.
Bareau, A. Les Sectes bouddhiques du petit Véhicule. Saigon, 1955.
Lamotte, E. Histoire du bouddhisme indien. Louvain, 1958.
See also references under BUDDHISM.

V. P. LUCHINA

References in periodicals archive ?
No es posible progresar en la via del mahayana sin tener buenas bases de hinayana, y llevaria a un final fatal comportarse como un practicante de vajrayana, si uno no esta firmemente consolidado en el mahayana.
que les adeptes du bouddhisme hinayana (du petit vehicule) cherchent a atteindre la liberation individuelle des cycles des reincarnations, ceux du bouddhisme mahayana (du grand vehicule) souhaitent atteindre la pleine illumination pour non seulement s'aider eux-memes, mais pour aider les autres, et ce, a travers la bodhichitta (soit un etat d'esprit qui veut parvenir a l'illumination pour le benefice de tous les etres vivants).
Mahayana Buddhism differs from Hinayana Buddhism and Hinduism because while it recognizes social inequality based on class divisions and castes, it does not limit salvation to only the select few.
Incidentally, I see no real conflict between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism.
Y creo que se ha dividido en dos escuelas, el Hinayana, el Pequeno Vehiculo.
This is somewhat of a revealing perception by a Mahayanist of Theravada which is the only extant example of so-called Hinayana Buddhism, largely believed to be other-worldly and anti-social.
These are the "small vehicle" or Hinayana (stage four); the self-enlightened ones who remain apathetic toward other sentient beings, thereby failing to cultivate compassion (stage five); the followers of the path of meditative union or Yogacara (stage six); the proponents of the doctrine of Emptiness who expound their doctrine through logical argumentation, taking cue from third-century Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna (stage seven); the followers of the Tendai school who teach the interpenetration of the ten realms of being, represented by Kukai's contemporary Saicho (stage eight); and the followers of the Avatamsaka or Kegon school, who have come to a clear awareness of ultimate truth as nonimmutable, and interconnected, interpenetrating, and interdependent.
esta escuela eligiosa habia pasado por tres importantes etapas, clasificadas de acuerdo con el cambio de sus principios basicos: la etapa de Hinayana, siglo V a.
4) Buddhism perhaps comes closer than the others in muting discriminations, but in its purest form, Theravada or Hinayana, it is highly eli tist, distinguishing between spiritual athletes and ordinary people.
going back to original Christianity, or to Hinayana Buddhism, or Wiccan.
Por ese motivo se califico a si mismo de Mahayana ("Gran Vehiculo"), en contraposicion del budismo anterior, que recibio el titulo de Hinayana ("Pequeno Vehiculo").
The conflicts and violence which they unleash are proverbial in the cases of Catholics and Protestants among Christians, of Shias and Sunnis among Muslims, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhists, Swetambara and Digambara Jains, although the intensity of violence varies among these denominations or sects.