histone

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histone

(hĭs`tōn), any of a class of proteinprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 molecules found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cellscell,
in biology, the unit of structure and function of which all plants and animals are composed. The cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of integrating the essential life processes. There are many unicellular organisms, e.g.
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. They complex with the DNA (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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) and pack the DNA into tight masses of chromatin, which have the structure of coiled coils, much like a tangled telephone cord. The molecules are strongly basic and of relatively small size. They also serve a function in the transcription of DNA. The histones are rich in the amino acids argininearginine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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 and lysinelysine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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; the five major subtypes of the class differ from one another chiefly in the relative amounts of these two amino acids. They have been greatly conserved during evolution, histone structures vary little in a wide range of organisms.

histone

[′hi‚stōn]
(biochemistry)
Any of the strong, soluble basic proteins of cell nuclei that are precipitated by ammonium hydroxide.
References in periodicals archive ?
1996), phosphorylation of histone H3 via the JNK/SAPK pathway might be a common mechanism of metal-induced histone modification.
Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the overlap between histone modifications and DNA methylation in the regulation of BDNFgene expression, which may be associated with activity-dependent changes in synaptic plasticity.
The work done so far indicates that chromatin remodeling resulting from histone modifications in the amygdala may be important in the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure (see figures 4 and 5).
is an early-stage life science company formed to significantly improve the treatment of cancer and other complex diseases by developing novel, semi-quantitative and quantitative laboratory products based on global histone modification patterns through technology licensed from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Histone modification plays an important part in epigenetics, affecting transcription, DNA repair, and DNA replication (Esteller 2008).
Epigenetic processes as they relate to chromatin, the physiological form of the human genome, involve DNA methylation and histone modifications - although heritability of histone modification patterns has not been convincingly demonstrated.
Our study points to epigenetic control of carcinogenesis in Ni-exposed humans and points to alterations in global levels of histone modification in subjects with Ni occupational exposure comparable to limits for Ni exposures in the United States (Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit, 0.
Three major types of epigenetic changes have been described: DNA methylation, covalent posttranslational histone modification, and small inhibitory RNA-mediated signaling pathways.
Interactions between epigenetic factors have been assumed to be central to the direction of DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling (36).
Together, the findings establish for the first time that MET1-mediated DNA methylation and HDA6-mediated histone modification work together in repressing harmful DNA elements.
An important aspect highlighted and reviewed is that both genetic and the epigenetic effects of environment (through DNA methylation, histone modification and micro RNA) are passed down to the progeny and future generations forming the underlying cause for the burden of many chronic debilitating diseases seen in the offspring.

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