Hohokam


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Hohokam

(hō`hōkăm', hōhō`kəm), term denoting the culture of the ancient agricultural populations inhabiting the Salt and Gila river valleys of S Arizona (A.D. 300–1200). They are noted for their extensive irrigation systems, with canals over 10 mi (16 km) long that channeled water to agricultural fields in an otherwise arid and inhospitable environment. Many architectural features of Hohokam settlements, including sunken ball-courts and pyramidal mounds, bear striking similarities to structures common among contemporary populations in central Mexico. Evidence also shows that they maintained extensive trade connections with groups further south, leading to speculation that the Hohokam settlements were founded by Mesoamerican migrants. Most archaeologists agree, however, that Hohokam culture evolved from local archaic antecedents (see Americas, antiquity and prehistory of theAmericas, antiquity and prehistory of the,
study of the origins of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. Archaeologists believe humans had entered and occupied much of the Americas by the end of the Pleistocene epoch, but the date of their original entry into the Americas is
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). Debate persists regarding the fate of the Hohokam. The region has been inhabited in historical times by the PimaPima
, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima.
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 and the Tohono O'OdhamTohono O'Odham
or Papago
, Native North Americans speaking a language that belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languages) and that is closely related to that of their neighbors, the Pima.
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, although it is not entirely clear that the Hohokam were ancestral to either group.

Bibliography

See E. W. Haury, The Hohokam (1976).

References in periodicals archive ?
We have helped to spread awareness of 22q to millions of people through events, such as our annual Casino Night fundraisers, multiple Dempster Family Foundation awareness days at ballparks like Wrigley Field, Turner Field and Hohokam Stadium, as well as through our national 22q Mystery Bus tour and other programs we've run on behalf of the Foundation.
El proceso de poblamiento temprano en la sierra de El Pinacate tuvo lugar durante los tres periodos clasicos, observados en todo el noroeste de Mexico: a) el paleoindio, que comprende a los complejos malpais y sandieguito; b) el arcaico, que incluye a los amargosa y hohokam y c) el prehistorico tardio, representado por los hiac'ed o'odham, tambien conocidos como arenenos o pinacatenos, y los tohono o'odham o papagos.
Among the topics are ancient peoples and places of the San Francisco Peaks, the eruption of Sunset Crater volcano, Hohokam and Chaco in the Sierra Sin Agua, the big view from small sites in Wupatki National Monument, pottery and cotton textiles, and evidence from the site of New Caves for the troubled end of Pueblo life.
Radiocarbon dating and the 'old wood' problem: The case of the Hohokam chronology.
The lumen is there in "Salado Markings," a contemplation upon the Hohokam people who "left no bones for us to measure them," but only "the aligned portals through which the equinox sun rose and set / rose and set.
First, the scope of DeJong's narrative is a perfect sequel to The Short Swift Time of Gods on Earth: The Hohokam Chronicles by Donald M.
El proceso de poblamiento temprano en la sierra del Pinacate, tuvo lugar a traves de los tres periodos clasicos observados en todo el noroeste de Mexico: 1) el paleoindio, comprendiendo a los complejos malpais y sandieguito; 2) el arcaico, que incluye a los complejos amargosa y hohokam, y 3) el prehistorico tardio representado por los hiaced o'odham, tambien conocidos como arenenos o pinacatenos, y los tohono o'odham o papagos.
15) Living at peace for centuries, the Hohokam developed an extensive canal system able to water their crops at distances up to 22 miles, sustaining a growing population on maize and beans and eventually generating a surplus able to support an elite, the construction of temples and ball courts and a division of labour of specialists in the production of painted pottery.
Mesa Grande is a prehistoric Hohokam site that flourished from about 1000 to 1450 A.
Palacios-Fest, Manuel 1994 "Nonmarine Ostracode Shell Chemistry from Ancient Hohokam Irrigation Canals in Central Arizona: A Paleohydrochemical Toll for the Interpretation of Prehistoric Human Occupation in the North American Southwest", Geoarchaeology 9(1): 1-29.
Over 1,000 years ago, the Sinagua, northern cousins of the Hohokam Indians, would bury leftover fish parts in holes and then plant several seeds of maize on top.