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(hōkī`dō), island (1990 pop. 5,643,515), c.30,130 sq mi (78,040 sq km), N Japan, separated from Honshu island by the Tsugaru Strait and from Sakhalin, Russia, by the Soya Strait. It is the second largest, northernmost, and most sparsely populated of the major islands of Japan. Once called Yezo, it received the name Hokkaido [region of the northern sea] in 1869. Its rugged interior with many volcanic peaks rises to 7,511 ft (2,289 m) in Asahi-dake and, like all of Japan, the island is subject to earthquakes. The Ishikari, second longest river of Japan, traverses W Hokkaido; its valley is an important urban and industrial region. Hokkaido has a humid continental climate and receives much snow. Forests, covering most of the island, are a source of lumber, pulp, and paper (milled in Hokkaido). Coal, iron, and manganese are mined; the Ishikari coal field produces a major part of Japan's supply. Although large areas of the island are unsuited to farming, agriculture is an important occupation. Hokkaido is one of the major fishing centers of the world. The island is the chief winter resort and sports area in Japan; the 1972 Winter Olympics were held there, at Sapporo. Hokkaido's scenic beauty is preserved in several national parks. The population is concentrated largely in the west and southwest. Sapporo, Hakodate, and Otaru are the chief cities. Kushiro is the main port for E Hokkaido.

The island was originally inhabited by AinuAinu
, aborigines of Japan who may be descended from a Caucasoid people who once lived in N Asia. More powerful invaders from the Asian mainland gradually forced the Ainu to retreat to the northern islands of Japan and Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in what is now the Russian
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, aborigines of uncertain ancestry. Until 1800 the Ainu outnumbered the Japanese, who had begun (16th cent.) to settle the southwest peninsula; there are now c.16,000 Ainu in Hokkaido. With the Meiji restoration (1868) Japan began the first serious effort to people the island as a means of strengthening the northern frontier. Under a government-sponsored plan to develop the island, Horace Capron, an American agriculturalist, introduced (1872–76) scientific methods of farming. In 1885, Hokkaido was made an administrative unit and was granted a central government. The growth of the railroads helped speed settlement, but despite subsidies, the severe winters discouraged emigration from S Japan. Parts of the island, particularly in the north, are still relatively underpopulated. The completion of the Seikan Tunnel (1988), which carries a rail line connecting Hokkaido and Honshu, has further decreased the isolation of Japan's northernmost island.



(also called Yesso, Ezo, and Matsumae until 1868), the northernmost island of Japan; the second largest island in Japan after Honshu. Area, 77,700 sq km. Population 5.4 million (1977). Hokkaido’s terrain is characterized by mountains that have medium and low elevations. Several mountain ranges, including the Hidaka Sammyaku and Taesetsu-zan, extend outward from the center of the island, and elevations reach 2,290 m (Asahi-dake). Hokkaido has eight active volcanoes, including Usu-dake. Earthquakes are common. The Yubari (Ishikari) field is an important source of coal; iron ore is mined at Kutchan, and sulfur, in the Taesetsu-zan.

The climate of Hokkaido is moderate, oceanic, and monsoon-al. The average monthly temperature ranges from – 11°C to 3°C in January and from 17°C to 21°C in July. Precipitation on most of the island ranges from 800 mm to 1,500 mm annually; much of it falls as snow. The island’s main rivers—the Ishikari, Teshio, and Tokachi—provide hydroelectric power and are also used for floating timber. Lakes include the lagoon Saroma and the crater lakes Kutcharo, Shikotsu, and Toya. Approximately 60 percent of Hokkaido’s territory is forested; spruce and fir predominate in the north, and broad-leaved trees in the southwest. Densely populated low-lying plains, such as Ishikari, are found along the coast, and meadows and swamps occur in the lowlands.

The major cities on Hokkaido are Sapporo and Hakodate. The island forms a separate agricultural and industrial economic region of Japan. Hokkaido is the country’s primary supplier of timber and timber products.


Armand, D. L. Ostrov Khokkaido. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.



the second largest and northernmost of the four main islands of Japan, separated from Honshu by the Tsugaru Strait and from the island of Sakhalin, Russia, by La Pérouse Strait: constitutes an autonomous administrative division. Capital: Sapporo. Pop.: 5 670 000 (2002 est.). Area: 78 508 sq. km (30 312 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
HAC network including flights to/from remote islands such as Sapporo (Okadama) = Rishiri route and Hakodate = Okushiri route, has been recognized the important transportation across Hokkaido by local residents.
With satellite imagery confirming at least 100 mm per hour of rain had been dumped on the Hokkaido cities of Eniwa and Chitose and around 120 mm on Ishimaki and Higashimatsushima, in Miyagi Prefecture, transportation companies in the region were quick to respond, with Hokkaido Railway Company halting its entire operation across the region.
During the visit, the GCC delegation had visited Hokkaido University Hospital in the capital city, Sapporo, and were introduced to the latest methods and technologies used in cancer treatment at the facility, and feasibility of bringing the technology over to the GCC states.
HAPPIRKA is coined from Happy and Pirka , which means beautiful in Ainu language than spoken by Ainu ethnic group in Hokkaido.
The problem was reported to the Hokkaido District Transport Bureau of the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry.
According to Toshikazu Masuyama, director-general of the Hokkaido Bureau of METI, the island is famous for its scenery and high quality snow, making it a sought-after winter destination in Asia.
The quake registered upper 5 on the Japanese seismic intensity scale of 7 in Kushiro Akan Chuo, Nemuro Attoko and Urahoro in the eastern part of Hokkaido, and lower 5 in Obihiro and other parts of the prefecture, according to the agency.
In April, Hokkaido enacted a "water resource conservation" ordinance that stipulates mandatory in-advance reporting of land transactions near water resources "to hand over precious water to the next generation.
According to the lower court ruling, Suzuki received 6 million yen in bribes from Shimada Kensetsu, a construction firm in Abashiri, Hokkaido, in October 1997, and 5 million yen from Yamarin, a timber company in Obihiro, another city in Hokkaido, in August 1998.
Having the G8 Summit allows the people of Hokkaido to be more aware of global environmental issues.
pulcherrimus was surveyed from Todohokke in the Pacific Ocean off southern Hokkaido, the Tsugaru Strait, and the Sea of Japan to Wakkanai in the Soya Strait, off northern Hokkaido, from 1990-1993 (Fig.
Meat Hope, based in the city of Tomakomai, has been found to have falsely labeled mixed ground beef and pork as ''ground beef,'' and to have disguised Brazilian chicken meat as domestic meat and then shipped it to two Hokkaido cities for school meals.