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an arrangement by which people work at home using a computer and telephone, accessing work-related materials at a business office, or transmitting materials to an office, by means of a Internet connection; it is also known as telework. Telecommuting hours can range from the occasional morning or afternoon to nearly full-time work. Although the term "telecommuting" was coined in the early 1970s, the practice only became popular in the 1990s as personal computerspersonal computer
(PC), small but powerful computer primarily used in an office or home without the need to be connected to a larger computer. PCs evolved after the development of the microprocessor made possible the hobby-computer movement of the late 1970s, when some computers
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 became more affordable and the InternetInternet, the,
international computer network linking together thousands of individual networks at military and government agencies, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, industrial and financial corporations of all sizes, and commercial enterprises (called gateways
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 became more accessible. Initially conducted using a modemmodem
[modulator/demodulator], an external device or internal electronic circuitry used to transmit and receive digital data over a communications line normally used for analog signals.
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 and telephone lines, telecommuting was made more feasible by cable and fiber-optic Internet connections. The development of lightweight portable computers and, later, smart phones also increased the ease of telecommuting. Government agencies and environmental groups have encouraged telecommuting because it reduces pollution, saves gasoline, and creates a less congested commuting environment. Companies have used telecommuting as a way of keeping valued employees who might otherwise be lost due to relocation or commuting stress. Although some people feel they can be more productive when working at home, others prefer an office environment.


The practice of working at home and communicating with your fellow workers through the phone, typically with a computer and modem. Telecommuting saves the employee getting to and from work and saves the employer from supplying support services such as heating and cleaning, but it can also deprive the worker of social contact and support.


Working at home and communicating with the office by phone, email and video conferencing. At the beginning of the 21st century, more than 30 million Americans were telecommuting at least one day a week. Also called "teleworking" and "e-working."

Telecommuting Goes Way Back
In the 1960s, information technology was one of the first industries to let employees telecommute. A small number of programmers worked at home one or more days a week; however, the only link to the office was the telephone. There were no modems attached to desktop computers because there were no desktop computers. A few programmers may have had the luxury of a terminal connected to a mainframe or minicomputer, but the majority wrote source code using pencil and paper. They later created the input by "punching cards" and testing the program at a local datacenter. See virtual company, telecity, ROWE and hoteling.

A Lot Has Changed
Today, telecommuters can emulate "being there" with devices such as the Double from Double Robotics. See telepresence. (Image courtesy of Double Robotics, Inc.,
References in periodicals archive ?
When asked, the home workers attributed that improved performance to the quieter home environment.
The main advantage that broadband brought to 29% of home workers was found to be improved access to corporate information.
Barney Spender, managing editor of Office@Home, says: "Our magazine provides a vital voice for the flourishing home workers market, which is the future for business in the 21st century.
The home workers in the study were randomly selected from a larger group that wanted to work from home.
However, there also are potential drawbacks including: Difficulty of managing home workers |and monitoring performance; Increased telecommunications costs; | Risk of communication problems and | a sense of isolation; The blurring of lines between work |and personal life; Working from home is unsuitable for |certain types of job.
But she says a downside for a home worker can be a feeling of isolation and missing out on the water cooler chats.
BT Business' Year Of The Home Worker aims to promote the needs of the UK's 2.
The research also found that out of the total number of home workers, 1.
Whether you call it the virtual office movement, teleworking or mobile working - terms that refer to alternative office situations - the exodus from the traditional corporate workplace is expanding the number of telecommuters and home workers every day.
A CARE home worker will stand trial accused of wilfully neglecting a patient.
Warwickshire-based Midcounties Co-op Travel has acquired Kwik Travel, one of the UK's leading home working businesses, for an undisclosed sum, increasing its home worker outlets from ten to around 60.
Ample phone and electrical sockets - any home worker will need a phone and internet connection, and possibly a fax machine, so sockets that enable this are basic elements of the home office.