In fact, in a study in patients with delusions of being harmed and erotomania, it was found that patients' homovanillic
acid levels and dopamine metabolites were higher than those in the normal population (9,10).
We used HPLC coupled with an electrochemical detector (for monoamines) or a fluorescent detector (for amino acids) to quantify dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic
acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), glutamine (GLN), glutamate (GLU), and [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), expressed in nanograms per milligram protein.
This distance is shorter than the previously observed 5 carbon atoms, or 5A, as the shortest linker between 2 small haptens (histamine and homovanillic
acid) that allowed a true sandwich formation for the linear synthetic molecule (16).
For example, in a sample of 22 adults with HIV (five participants were HIV seronegative, but at risk for HIV infection, whereas 11 were HIV seropositive without neurological disease; six had HIV-related neurological disease), Berger, Kumar, Kumar, Fernandez, and Levin (1994) found low levels of dopamine and homovanillic
acid, a dopamine metabolite, in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Normal levels of homovanillic
acid and vanillylmandelic acid support a diagnosis of PNET over neuroblastoma.
The levels of Dopamine (DA) and Homovanillic
acid (HVA) in striatum were determined by Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ToF-MS).
1999), while higher MDMA levels reduce dopamine and homovanillic
acid levels (Taffe et al.
The blood glucose level increases with increase in homovanillic
acid (metabolite of dopamine) on fasting (36).
acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and acidic metabolites of catecholamines are excreted in higher than normal amounts by patients with neuroblastoma, and can therefore be used as tumour markers for diagnosis.
acid and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid in the csf of patients after a severe head injury.
Serum and urine catecholamine levels showed mild elevation of serum homovanillic
acid (HVA) and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA).
The endocrine studies (urinary metanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic
acid and dopamine) are useful in patients with symptoms of cathacolamine-secreting tumors.